Geography( Managing Water Supply)
* Only 3% of the Earth’s water is fresh water, 97% is sea water. * Only 1% of the total amount of water is available for human use.
Water as a scarce resource
Reasons for scarcity: - Due to increasing demand as annual global use of water has increased 7 fold.
-Uneven distribution of precipitation
-Climate change leads to disturbances to water cycle
- Deforestation leads to higher surface runoff which causes less clean water.
- Poor or improper farming practices
Reasons for water constraints: 1. Man needs water for survival and daily living of about 80 litres/day.
2. Increase in agricultural activities which lead to the demand for water as more food has to be produced.
3. Increase in industrial and commercial activities for cleaning and cooling.
Change in global climate:-erratic world’s climate
-Gradual increase in temperatures
-Frequent floods and droughts
-People and possessions destroyed
Water conservation 1. Recycling household water: 50% used in a household for flushing toilets and watering garden. The amount of water consumed can be reduced by 30%. 2. Collecting rainwater: water collected can be stored for use or channeled to reservoirs. 3. Repairing underground piping systems: 50% of water could be lost through leaking old pipes and faulty connections. There are regular checks and maintenance. 4. Using water-saving methods and technology: 50% in agriculture and industry can be conserved through efficient water management. Less wasteful methods of growing crops such as water drips. 5. Educating the public: Increase awareness and hold campaigns which save water or emergency water rations exercises through mass media.
Increasing the price of water: it is effective in limiting water consumption and demand drops. Treatment of water to become potable water. Impose additional cost in the form of water conservation tax.
Increasing the water supply 1. Extending water catchment: water catchment areas where