Geography Exam Review

Topics: Population, Developed country, Precipitation Pages: 8 (2285 words) Published: May 11, 2014
Mapping and Geotechnology (pg.20-pg.108)
1. *Map of Canada
2. General-Purpose Map: map that contains many different types of information. Provide many types of information on one map. Most atlas maps, wall maps, and road maps fall into this category Thematic Map: map containing information on only one topic or theme Topographic Map: large-scale map showing both natural and human-made features 3. Verbal Scale: words are used to describe the relationship between a distance on a map and a specific distance on Earth’s surface Linear Scale: line divided into units of distance (e.g., km) that represent the actual units on the ground Representative Fraction Scale: scale on a map given as a ratio of distance on the map to distance on the ground

4. Alphanumeric Grid: grid that uses numbers and letters to identify squares of a grid pattern on a map Latitude and Longitude: a spherical coordinate system that is based on imaginary lines drawn around the surface of the Earth (latitude: equator, longitude: Prime Meridian) Military Grid: a system of numbered lines is superimposed on a map and position is stated by quoting the numbers of the lines that intersect at the point in question

5. Geographic Information Systems (GIS): integrated software package for the input, management, analysis, and display of spatial information. Links geographic locations to descriptive information, e.g., linking a specific address to a specific person Global Positioning System (GPS): satellite navigation system that is used to compute the exact latitude and longitude position of any place on Earth Remote Sensing: study of characteristics of Earth using photographs and electronic images taken from aircraft and satellites

6. False Colours: colours artificially added to satellite images of Earth, to make patterns more obvious. These colours would not actually be seen from space. Red = growing Vegetation Blue to Black = shallow and deep water Yellow -Orange = sparse vegetation White = clouds or snow Blue-Green to Grey = few growing things (i.e., cities)

Physical Geography (pg.110-pg.179)
7. The layers of the Earth: core, outer core, mantle, and crust Know the Rock Cycle

8. Plate Tectonics: theory that states Earth’s outer shell consists of plates that move causing earthquakes, volcanoes, mountains, and the formation of new crust Subduction: the sideways and downwards movement of the edge of the plate of the Earth’s crust into the mantle beneath another plate The theory of plate tectonics and continental drift has often been doubted. What proof can you offer to support his theory? There is a jigsaw fit between South America and Africa. There are fossils of the same plants and animals on South America and Africa. There are mountains on countries that can only be formed when a plate from one country is pushing against a plate form another country, so that means the plates are still moving.

9. How has Canada’s landscape changed through geologic history? Pre-Cambrian: Canadian Shield formed
Paleozoic: Appalachian formed, coal bed formed
Mesozoic: Rockies formed, age of dinosaurs
Cenozoic: Ice ages, volcanoes in Rockies

10. *Innuition Mountains: Mountain Ranges covered in snow are separated by plains, that are also covered in snow Hudson Bay-Arctic Lowlands: Very flat, covered in swamp and forest Western Cordillera: Large Mountains that ranges up to 700 km. Separated by plateaus and valleys Interior Plains: Ranges from Arctic Ocean to Gulf of Mexico, called the Bread Basket because of all the wheat Canadian Shield: Very thin soil, lots of rivers and lakes, valuable minerals, forestry Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands: Low elevation. Most of the water is fresh (lakes, rivers).Very fertile soil Appalachian Mountains: Oldest highland region in North America that formed 300 million years ago. Glaciers separate the hills and valleys

11. *Latitude: The distance...
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