Genetically Modified Animals

Topics: DNA / Pages: 4 (1220 words) / Published: Sep 2nd, 2014
Week 8 Assignment: Genetically Modified Animals
Natasha Haynes
SCI115: Introduction to Biology
Professor Trinna Johnson
August 21, 2014

Genetically Modified Animals
The Biology
Genetically modified (GM) animals are the result of deliberately changing a genome through genetic engineering. The process of modifying the genetic composition of a mammal scientist starts with Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA makes up the genes of all living things and by using DNA sequencing scientist are able to identify a specific gene. Each parent passes along one set of genes, each set forming on side of the two sided DNA strand. The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides. Similarities found between species prompt scientist to research and theorize utilizing variations found during research.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) plays a part in the genetic engineering process because the RNA is a strand of nucleotides. The amount of research required to confirm the desired strand can be substantial, however once the RNA needed is identified, it can then be isolated, and replicated for further experimentation. The replication process is most commonly referred to as cloning. GM is done by taking DNA from one organism and combining it with the DNA of another organism. Scientist inserts a compatible nucleotide or protein that will generate a desired modification into the gene sequence of a fertilized egg. The new hereditary genetic information will be passed to future offspring.
There are many reasons for genetically engineering changes in a multitude of species. The eldest known and most common reason is for medical advancements. As early as the 1920 animal proteins have been used as pharmaceuticals, insulin extracted from pig pancreas is one of the first examples of such a use. Animals are modified to produce proteins for extraction, purification, and therapeutic use. In 2008 the FDA approved the use of GM goats that were engineered to produce human AT in their milk;

References: FDA Veterinarian. (2008). FDA Approves First Human Biologic Produced by GE Animals. Retrieved August 20, 2014, from FDA.GOV: McKie, R. (2010, August 7). Genetic modification: glow-in-the-dark lifesavers or mutant freaks? Retrieved August 24, 2014, from The Observer:

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