What are Cells, DNA, Genes and Chromosomes?
In the human body there are 50 trillion cells. Cells structures the human body, takes in nutrients and covert it into energy. Each cell has a set of instructions that create a person identity and it is encoded into humans Deoxyribonucleic (DNA). Genes are a long strand of DNA. The long strands of DNA are organized into piece called chromosomes. Every human have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Chromosomes are organized to short segment of DNA called genes. A gene consist a combination of four different nucleotides. “The four nucleotides are A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (Guanine), and T (thymine).” The gene combination ACGT give humans different characteristics. (Nordqvist, 2008)
Genes are passed from the parents to offspring. A sperm and egg from both parents’ meet and fertilize the egg. A sperm cell pairs up with the other half of chromosomes. Half chromosomes are from the mother and the other half is from the father and creates 23 chromosomes together. Each chromosome have different genes and when it time the most dominant genes will appear. “Each of your cells contains two sets of chromosomes - one set came from your mother while the other came from your father - male sperm and the female egg carry a single set of 23 chromosomes each - 22 autosomes and an X or Y sex chromosome. If you are female you inherited an X chromosome from each parent - if you are male you inherited an X chromosome from your mother and a Y from your father.” (Nordqvist, 2008)
Genes are essential to the function of the human body. They determine how the body functions and how it responds to various stimuli. The latter are internal and external factors. Internal factors include genetic coding and base pairing, and external factors are ones based on the environment. Genes account for the differences in the biological differences when comparing humans. This is what makes each and every one of us unique. However, this variance in traits and characteristics presents a direct impact on health care delivery. Patients respond to treatments differently, and as a result, unwarranted variations in performance within the health care system occur.
Human beings are complex organisms. Our genetic composition determines how we grow, respond to medical care and develop certain medical conditions or diseases. The human body is composed of 50 trillions of living cells. These cells function in an orderly fashion. They grow, divide, and die. By following this process, cell division ensures that our bodies remain functional and healthy. However, the likelihood of genetic mutations threatens our health status. Mutations occur when cells stop functioning properly, resulting in serious medical conditions. “Mutations of genes that are important for functions in the body can lead to a genetic condition that may affect growth or health of the individual. Some mutations do not directly cause disease but may make a person more susceptible to developing a genetic condition.” (Mandal)
A permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene is called gene mutation. There are different sizes of mutation from a single DNA building block also know as DNA base to a large part of a chromosome. There are two ways gene mutations occur. Gene mutation can be inherited from a parents’ to offspring or can be develop during a person’s life. Mutations that are passed from parent to child are called hereditary mutations or germ-line mutations because they are present in the egg and sperm cells, which are also called germ cells. This means that the child was born with the type of mutation and it is encoded into every cell in the body.
There are several ways mutation can occur. Mutation can occurs after fertilization, it is the cause of genetic disorders. A child with a genetic disorder has a mutation in every cell. This means that this disorder is not in the family history. Mutation can develop by environmental factors....
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