Genetic Mutation

Topics: DNA, Cancer, DNA repair Pages: 3 (611 words) Published: April 15, 2014
Julio Hernandez

Genetic Mutation is a change of the nucleotide sequence of a genome. Mutations result from un-repaired damage to DNA or RNA genomes usually caused by radiation or chemical mutagens or from errors in the process of replications. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes, including evolution, development of the immune system, and cancer.

There are two main types of genes that play a role in cancer, ocnogenes and tumor suppressor genes. An important difference between the two is that ocnogenes result from the activation of proto-ocnogenes, but tumor suppressor genes cause cancer when they are inactivated. Ocnogenes are mutations of certain normal genes called pro to-ocnogenes. Proto-ocnogenes are the normal or "good" genes that normally control what kind of cell it is and how often it divides. When it mutates it turns into ocnogenes, that can become permanently turned on or activated when it isn't supposed to be. When this happens the cells grow out of control, which can lead to cancer.

A few cancer syndromes are caused by inherited mutations of proto-ocnogenes that cause the ocnogene to be turned on. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) is caused by and inherited mutation in the gene. People affected by this syndrome often develop an uncommon thyroid cancer called medullary cancer of the thyroid. The syndrome also develops other tumors. Most cancer-causing mutations involving ocnogenes are acquired, not inherited. They generally activate ocnogenes by chromosome rearrangements, gene duplication, or mutation. One thing could lead to another and lead to cancers and tumors.

Tumor suppressor genes is another main type of gene that plays a role in cancer. Tumor suppressor genes are genes that slow down cell division, repair DNA mistakes, or tell cells when to die. When they don't work properly, cells can grow out of control, which could in turn lead to cancer. Inhertited abnormalities of tumor suppressor...

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