Genetic Modify Organisms
Today many scientist use “genetic engineering” a new technology that manipulates the genes of many plants, bacteria and animals. This organisms are called genetic modified organism (GMOs) because their genetic material (DNA) has been changed in a way that it doesn’t occur naturally, it alters the organism’s genetic material through adding, deleting or changing the segments in the DNA. This technology is also referred to as "biotechnology" or "recombinant DNA technology" because it randomly inserts genetic fragments of DNA from one organism to another, usually from different species to “improve” or get new traits that would be beneficial for humans. Humans have been involved in genetic modification of animals, whether knowingly or not since about 12,000 years ago. For most of this time genetic modification has been about identifying and breeding animals, which best helps human’s needs for food, clothing, transport or draught power. The increase in the human population in the 18th century led to an increased on “selective breeding” which is picking the best animals to be parents of the next generation for a higher output of animal products such as meat, milk, fiber and eggs. Many new breeding technologies simply accelerate these conventional selection methods without directly modifying the animals' genetic make-up, however it has been proven that is more economically beneficial to produce GMO’s. Genetic Modify Organism and Medicine
Genetic modified organism based on medical research is also a great help to develop new ways to cure, threat, and produce new ways that can help humans to created vaccines to prevent diseases like a vaccine for HIV or to develop new and more efficient ways to create it. For example, until the 1980's most insulin was created by extracting a human insulin from the pancreas of animals now thanks to GMO researches, the genetic coding for insulin was removed from human DNA and then inserted into the DNA of a bacteria (E. coli). Now this new method of creating insulin has been a great help for many diabetics for over 20 years. Also genetic modification in bacteria resulted in the production and of human growth hormones and a genetically engineered version of erythropoietin, a protein that simulates the formation of red blood cells had more than $2.4 billion in sales in 2003. Genetically engineered medicines are in great demand in addition to protein drugs, research on antibodies and vaccines developed through recombinant DNA and genetic modification. While there aren’t a large number of vaccines on the market and in use, new research promises amazing vaccines and treatments using these techniques. For example a new vaccine based on genetically modified peanut proteins will protect people with peanut allergies from developing a life threatening allergic response, and researchers are working on genetically engineering bacteria to prevent cavities and tooth loss. Genetic engineering is not only a way to find cures for disease but it is economically affordable. GMO production in bacteria and plants have had lower the time and cost for vaccine production, while at the same time offering a lot of advantages. As often called “biopharming” genetic modification in a plant allows for researchers to a more develop organisms that have certain desire characteristics or gives genetic models for medical research and the development of treatment, vaccines, or cures, but most treatments for human (and animal) diseases such as cancer, herpes, and infectious diseases require human and viral proteins (antibodies, enzymes, etc.) that we can only get from living systems. Currently the majority of these drugs are based on material taken and cultivated from animal cells, however the production of those antibodies from animal cells are expensive, making the resulting drugs too expensive for most patients and more important there are not enough of these...
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