Today many scientist use “genetic engineering” a new technology that manipulates the genes of many plants, bacteria and animals. This organisms are called genetic modified organism (GMOs) because their genetic material (DNA) has been changed in a way that it doesn’t occur naturally, it alters the organism’s genetic material through adding, deleting or changing the segments in the DNA. This technology is also referred to as "biotechnology" or "recombinant DNA technology" because it randomly inserts genetic fragments of DNA from one organism to another, usually from different species to “improve” or get new traits that would be beneficial for humans. Humans have been involved in genetic modification of animals, whether knowingly or not since about 12,000 years ago. For most of this time genetic modification has been about identifying and breeding animals, which best helps human’s needs for food, clothing, transport or draught power. The increase in the human population in the 18th century led to an increased on “selective breeding” which is picking the best animals to be parents of the next generation for a higher output of animal products such as meat, milk, fiber and eggs. Many new breeding technologies simply accelerate these conventional selection methods without directly modifying the animals' genetic make-up, however it has been proven that is more economically beneficial to produce GMO’s. Genetic Modify Organism and Medicine
Genetic modified organism based on medical research is also a great help to develop new ways to cure, threat, and produce new ways that can help humans to created vaccines to prevent diseases like a vaccine for HIV or to develop new and more efficient ways to create it. For example, until the 1980's most insulin was created by extracting a human insulin from the pancreas of animals now thanks to GMO researches, the genetic coding for insulin was removed from human DNA and then inserted into the DNA of a bacteria (E. coli). Now this new method of creating insulin has been a great help for many diabetics for over 20 years. Also genetic modification in bacteria resulted in the production and of human growth hormones and a genetically engineered version of erythropoietin, a protein that simulates the formation of red blood cells had more than $2.4 billion in sales in 2003. Genetically engineered medicines are in great demand in addition to protein drugs, research on antibodies and vaccines developed through recombinant DNA and genetic modification. While there aren’t a large number of vaccines on the market and in use, new research promises amazing vaccines and treatments using these techniques. For example a new vaccine based on genetically modified peanut proteins will protect people with peanut allergies from developing a life threatening allergic response, and researchers are working on genetically engineering bacteria to prevent cavities and tooth loss. Genetic engineering is not only a way to find cures for disease but it is economically affordable. GMO production in bacteria and plants have had lower the time and cost for vaccine production, while at the same time offering a lot of advantages. As often called “biopharming” genetic modification in a plant allows for researchers to a more develop organisms that have certain desire characteristics or gives genetic models for medical research and the development of treatment, vaccines, or cures, but most treatments for human (and animal) diseases such as cancer, herpes, and infectious diseases require human and viral proteins (antibodies, enzymes, etc.) that we can only get from living systems. Currently the majority of these drugs are based on material taken and cultivated from animal cells, however the production of those antibodies from animal cells are expensive, making the resulting drugs too expensive for most patients and more important there are not enough of these materials being produced. Many genetically modified plants have been prove to have useful information and are in use to produce s antibodies. For example Pond algae, tobacco plants, and soy are only a few of the many plants that have been used greatly to medical field’s improvement. Research and continued development of new GMO is necessary to produce affordable, life saving medicines for the future, as the American professor of f biochemistry Isaac Asimov (died in1992) at Boston University said “The advance of genetic engineering makes it quite conceivable that we will begin to design our own evolutionary progress”.
Genetic modify organism include animals that help for research , like other forms of genetic modification animals can be genetically modified in several ways, for example by removing genes from its DNA structure or by adding new DNA. In others modifications, researchers introduce new genetic material into the animal’s gene, from other species often humans. These animals have been genetically modified to create new or existing characteristics. They have proven to be an important to not only study a disease, but also to treat or cure a disease. As an example of this is to get human antibodie for use in drug development, in this case mice have been developed capable of making human antibodies, in place of the normal mouse antibodies that are normally produced. Other examples of GMOs or transgenic animals being used in medical research include transgenic goats to produce treatments for blood disease such as hemophilia, pigs that develop a treatment for cystic fibrosis ( it is an inherited disease that affects the digestive system, reproductive system, and other organs and tissues). Scientists are also working with cows that will produce milk with an inactive milk protein for people that are lactose-intolerance so they can eat dairy products such as milk and cheese without being affected Every big medical advance of the last 100 years has being largely on research with animals. Scientist have made progress against diseases such as polio, small pox, cancer, heart diseases, and diabetes thanks to animal research. Now treatments, and cures for diseases such as Alzheimer's, AIDS, diabetes, cancer, and treating human and animal conditions will involve biomedicine and genetic engineering. Concerns Regarding GMOs
One of the most common fears about GMOs is the mixing of GMOs with food supply, or that transgenic animals will breed with native animals. To prevent this scientist have changed to producing the pharmaceutical products in non-food, or feed crops such as tobacco , and others to produce human proteins to treat illness, including growth hormones, Hepatitis C and B treatments, human interferon, liver cirrhosis etc. Regulation of transgenic organisms, including genetically modified or transgenic plants, is regulated by the following agencies: the Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, the USDA, the California Department of Fish and Game oversees transgenic aquatic species . These agencies are responsible to secure, research animals carefully housed and cared for, and no transgenic animal is allowed to breed with “normal” populations. People are also concerning about the use of transgenic animals in research. Most of the time these animals suffer more abnormalities than not GMOs, they are more likely to be destroyed (killed) and they could have a negative impact on wild populations if they are accidentally released. GMOs and Agriculture
Technology, food, and agriculture have been changing now day. Most farmers and companies’ switched from an organic agriculture to a more advance and economically helpful agriculture. Genetically modified crops which are also called biotech crops, have been changed through genetic engineering. . In 2007, farmers planted an additional 12.3 million hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops, (a little more than 12%). Although they have been on the industry for a little more than 10 yrs , they currently account for 9 % of total land used for global crops. Twenty-three countries were growing GM crops in 2007, including 17 high-income and upper-middle-income or often called developed countries and 6 lower-middle-income countries ( developing countries). The main leader in GMO’s continues to be the United States, which produces more than half of all GMOs. In 2007, GM crops were growing on 57.7 million hectares of U.S. land, and it increased 6 percent over the previous years. The second and third largest countries for GM crop area are Argentina, Brazil and. The main GM crops are soybean (51 %), corn (31%t), cotton (13 %), and canola (5%). Currently, up to 85 percent of U.S. corn is genetically engineered , 91 percent of soybeans and 88 percent of cotton .Now 70 percent of processed foods on supermarket shelves from soda to soup, crackers to condiments contain genetically engineered ingredients. Harm for Humans?
A number of studies over the past decade have revealed that genetically engineered foods can have serious risks to humans, animals, wildlife and the environment. Many animals are being fed GM crops some examples are cows, they are being fed GM corn which alters their development improving the amount of fat in their bodies, but this non- natural crop can affect humans in a way that many cases of cattle producing E-coli are affecting human’s health. Human health effects can include higher risks of toxicity, allergic reactions, antibiotic resistance, immune-suppression and cancer. As for environmental impacts, the use of genetic engineering in agriculture will lead to uncontrolled biological pollution, threatening numerous bacterial, plant and animal species with extinction, and the potential contamination of all non genetically engineered life can be disturbed. Product Labeling and Identity Preservation
Many people are unaware of GM crops and food. Many groups are arguing food companies to label their food, for the labeling of foods gives people the right to know what they are eating, “ it would preserve a consumer’s right to vote with their pocket”, but the national state hasn’t approve it. Many opponents of food labeling for GM products claim that there’s is no difference between GE and normal food. Food labeling is said to encourage people to eat more healthy and organic. It is said that if more people knew the difference between transgenic foods and organic foods more people will increase in the consumption of “normal” food and it will help reduce the amount of obesity and health issues.GM foods taste different and can cause serious health issues,but after all what the food industries want is more quantity instead of good quality for the consumers. Conclusion
Genetic Modified organisms are of great help to humans in a way that it helps us economically , it also helps the medical industry to improve and go beyond its research. Although genetic engineering helps humans in various ways it can also cause harm to human health and the environment.
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