genetic influence & addition

Satisfactory Essays
Paper 1 Abstract:
• statistically significant shifts toward the extremes of the scales
• (a) that group judgments are less extreme than individual judgments, and
• (b) that the "risky shift" phenomenon is a content-bound exception to the averaging tendency of the group.
• suggests that a normative commitment may be the underlying variable responsible for polarization effects.

Paper 1 Introduction:
• individuals in a social situation avoid expressing extreme opinions or judgments,
• the consensus represents an averaging, a compromise among individual positions on opinions or judgmental scales.
• Allport (1924): similar to Farnsworth & Behner (1931) o when judging odor for pleasantness and weight for heaviness, subjects tend to make more extreme judgments when alone than when in a group
• Kelley & Thibaut (1954): o "while reacting with other persons, the person reacts to them . . . by tempering his judgments so as to avoid the possibility of being extremely different from others
• Allport (1962): o the convergence phenomenon represents the basis for the building of a "feeling of camaraderie" and "a potential for collective structure."
• Kogan and Wallach (1966): o the consensus or group judgment, represented the average of the prior individual judgments.
• Stoner's (1961): o discover a risky shift
• Wallach and Kogan (1965):
1. when discussing problems concerning possible loss of money, prestige, or self-satisfaction, groups tend to prefer a riskier alternative
• Questions:
1. (a) How can it be explained?
2. (b)Under what conditions does polarization occur?
3. (c) To what extent is the "polarization effect" of group interaction limited to matters of risk taking?
• Paradigm:
1. a social facilitation model:
 Allport (1924): crowd behavior
 Wallach and Kogan (1965): group interaction enables each person to feel less personal responsibility for the consequences of the decisions, and this sense of shared responsibility for an

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