(Due: April 02, 2013)
By: Nicole Pocpoc
Tutorial Group: 4
Thursday 8 – 10
Globalization: Why Homogenization of Cultures Will Not Occur
Globalization describes the phenomenon that the economy is currently facing. It represents the growth in international trade, spread of the financial markets, and transfers of population across nations, and the development of modern technology. Many of these rapid changes emphasize strong forces of American and Western influences, thus the importance of cultural diversity is challenged as the notion “globalization” becomes stronger each day. There is global fear that globalization will inevitably lead to the homogenization of cultures. However studies have shown that homogenization of cultures is less likely to happen even in the event of strong forces of globalization. In this essay we will cover the history and effects of globalization, and the notion of culture, religion and “Ethnocentrism” that are some of the contributing factors in determining the heterogeneity of cultures. Globalization: History and its Effects in Today’s Society
Globalization emerged after the end of World War II, and many changes throughout the world occurred. International global trade was made possible, and non-Western people had the freedom to manage their own affairs (Bailey & Peoples, 2011). People from all over the world were able to sell their products in the global market and purchase goods from any country. Globalization describes the growth of international trade and financial capital across the national borders (Taylor, 2002). The development in technology, as well as communication technologies, changed the world. The Internet changed the system in society, as people were able to purchase and sell goods, as well as transfer money at any time of the day to almost anywhere in the world, via the Internet (Bailey & Peoples, 2011) Amongst these changes, migration of people to other countries also occurred. In the event of globalization, there were also massive transfers of population from the rural areas of their country to the new urbanized areas. In some countries, the modernization was very apparent. For example, in Beijing, beautiful old urban communities were destroyed and replaced by the hotels and high-rise buildings (Turner & Khondker, 2010). In Southeast Asia, Singapore experienced significant modernization that saw much of old Chinatown along the river destroyed. These developments produced a modernized environment without any cultural distinctions. One of the most important issues concerning globalization is the impact it has on culture diversity. Many argue that globalization destroys the diversity in cultures and could eventually lead to the homogenization of one world culture. However, despite the use of modern technology and society’s exploitation to modernity, such factors will contribute to the survival of local cultures. The worldview of people and cultural differences will not vanish, but rather become more apparent across cultures (Bhawuk, 2008). The Resistance of Cultural Globalization
The notion of “culture” is an important factor in analyzing the impacts of globalization. It is an important aspect of humanity. As Machida states, “culture can serve as a critical context that powerfully determines human behaviour at the most fundamental level” (2012). Cultures found in Egypt, India, Greece and other countries are ancient, and the people of these cultures are very proud of their culture and its distinctiveness, thus, they feel strongly about protecting their culture (Bhawuk, 2008). Their cultural values and beliefs are deeply rooted in their respective traditions and social practices. The older the history of the culture, the more value it has to its people. In today’s world, many people are still resisting to the conversion of globalized norms. India is a great example...
References: Bailey, G., & Peoples, J. (2011). Essentials of Cultural Anthropology. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
Bhawuk, D. P. (2008). Globalization and indigenous cultures: Homogenization or differentiation? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32 (4), 305-317.
Boli, J., & Lechner, F. J. (2001). Globalization and World Culture. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 6261-6266.
Derné, S. (2005). The (limited) effect of cultural globalization in India: Implications for culture theory. Poetics, 33 (1), 33-47.
Machida, S. (2012). Does Globalization Render People More Ethnocentric? Globalization and People’s View on Cultures. American Journal of Economic and Sociology, 71 (2), 436-469.
Pakeeza, S., & Chishti, A. A. (2012). Globalization and Religion: Islamic Perspective. Academic Research International, 2 (3), 724-736.
Sholte, J. A. (2005). Globalization: a critical introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Taylor, T. (2002). The truth about globalization. Public Interest, (147), 24-44.
Van Der Bly, M. C. (2007). Globalization and the Rise of One Heterogeneous World Culture: A Microperspective of a Global Village. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 48 (1), 234-256.
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