general adaption syndrome

Topics: Cortisol, Epinephrine, Adrenal gland Pages: 1 (295 words) Published: October 26, 2014

General Adaption Syndrome- (Stress Response) Three Stages: Consistent way the body reacts to stress; typically involves elevated levels of epinephrine and glucocorticoids Alarm reaction- mediated by norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous system, and epi from the adrenal medulla. They prepare body for flight or fight. Angiotensin and aldosterone levels also increase. Angiotensin raises BP, aldosterone promotes sodium and H2O conservation, which helps offset possible losses by sweating and bleeding. Stage of Resistance- If stressful situation isn’t resolved before the glycogen is gone, it enters this stage. 1st priority is finding alternative fuels for metabolism. Stage dominated by cortisol. Hypothalamus secretes cotropin-releasing hormone (CRH); pituitary responds by secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); and this stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol and other glucocorticoids. Cortisol promotes the breakdown of fat and protein into glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids, providing the liver with raw material for gluconeogenesis. Cortisol inhibits glucose uptake by most organs and thus has a glucose-sparing effect, also it inhibits protein synthesis, leaving the free amino acids avail for gluconeogenesis. Long term elevation of cortisol secretion reduces immunity. It inhibits the synthesis of protective leukotrienes and prostaglandins, suppress anti –body production, and kills immature T&B cells. Stage of Exhaustion- often marked by rapid decline and death. W/o fat stores, body relies on protein breakdown to meet energy needs. Progressive wasting away and weakening of body. After prolonged stim, adrenal cortex may stop producing glucocorticoids making it hard to maintain glucose homeostasis. Aldosterone sometimes promotes so much water retention that it creates a state of hypertension and hastens elimination of potassium and hydrogen ions. Creates a state of hypokalemia (potassium defencicy) and alkalosis (high BP) resulting in...
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