Gender roles in cultural context
In this project, the responses were discussed with reference to gender, gender identity, ethnicity, and stereotyping of children’s chores and it was based on the research of Kulk L’s Israel’s case and also Brofenbrenner’s ecological system theory. The purpose of this research was to find out people’s idea of what they think of gender roles in a cultural context. In this project, a short interview was conducted with an Italian female student for her opinion about gender roles in her cultural context. The interview was based on her opinion of gender roles, who does what when it comes to household chores and if gender roles has changed in recent years. The responds that came from her was that she believed that from her cultural background, gender role in being considered as when male and females are being considered to do something different like in the house, females are expected to stay in the house and prepare meals whiles the makes are being viewed as the breadwinner of the family, she also confirmed that gender roles has changed in recent due to the fact that females are now being treated fairly as men.
Gender roles in recent years have been one of the important issues within cross-cultural studies psychology by cross-cultural psychologist like segall, Dasen, Berry and poortinga (1999) studied the important. According to Kulik L (2006), he believed that women in this case have less stereotypical idea compared to men when it comes to household chores. Biological factors in some case may pose some restriction on developmental, but socio-cultural factors are more important of development, Best and Williams (1993). Culture has a huge effect on behavioural like how babies are being delivered in different cultural background, how children are being advice to socialise in the society, what task has being taught and what roles they are expected to do either being a male or female. Mead (1935) studied three primitive tribes in New Guinea and she found out that even though Best and Williams (1994) in cross cultural views of men and women in a different way as men being described as aggressive and women as affectionate and patient, but in Mead’s study she found out that both men and women in Mundungamor, are aggressively and also have less parental orientation and in Arapesh, both men and women are gentle and nurturant as being different in what was found in Best and Williams study. Prosser etal (1986), discussed in their study in gender role stereotype and found out that by the age of four or five, Sri Lankan children demonstrate gender differences similar to children in British children and they results they came across was that boys in that age tend to show more negative behaviours and more fantasy object play whiles the girls also display more fantasy person and immaterial fantasy play. Social learning theorist Bandura (1969) considers gender role development as the results of experience in the society. This is because, he believed that even societies, teachers, peers and parents shape children’s gender related behaviours through reinforcement and punishment. A researched conducted by lamb (1976) found out that in united state, same-sex parent and opposite sex parent shows different behaviour to their children. He believed that boys receive more physical punishment and also given more freedom and independence than that of girls. Using Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological system in gender roles will give us a theoretical understanding of how culture and environment shapes individuals behaviour in the society when it come to gender roles. This is because in his theory, he placed the child in the middle and demonstrated how things affect the child directly or indirectly. In gender role, the Microsystems methods best described how children can influenced by the people they come into contact with since in this system they are involved with their parent, teachers, peers...
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