This research paper explores five published journals articles from research-conducted interview, online survey, and questionnaires about gender roles. The first two articles talk about the sharing of parenthood and how their roles as parents are being misunderstood by the society. The third article explores if social support balances the link between gender role conflict and psychological distress, and also, the fourth article investigates cardiovascular reactivity to two interpersonal consistent with two different gender roles stressors to determine whether responses differences exist between men and women. Finally, the fifth article focuses his attention on the roles of gender and a generation outlook in expressing an outcome in advance of interpersonal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder.
There has been a general misconception about gender roles in the society and this has triggered psychologists to carry out research to clarify the misnomer. Gender roles are perceptions which are imposed by the society between men and women. Gender roles also differ greatly cross-culturally as some cultures are more or less lenient with conformity to these gender roles. In modern times, distinct gender roles seem to be fading as some individuals take on some of the roles and identities of the opposite sex. Literature Review
Fischer and Anderson (2011) conducted a comparative study that explores gender roles attitudes and characteristics of stay-at-home and employed fathers. In order to be eligible for the survey, the fathers had to be at least 18 years old, married or in a committed relationship with a woman. The research was conducted via online survey, out of the 114 men, 84 fathers were qualified which included 35 stay-at-home and 49 employed fathers. The criteria were also based on household income ranging from $20.000 to $100.000 per year, and some higher educational level. Some questionnaires were given to them such as background information requiring who takes care of the children when both parents are at home and the length of time stay-home fathers had been stay-home fathers. Another questionnaire was personal attributes to determine gender characteristics of the fathers. Also, social roles questionnaire was given to determine attitudes to gender roles. Finally, reasons questionnaire was given only to stay-at-home fathers to give 12 reasons for their decisions to stay-at home. The results showed about background information that 100% of stay-at-home and 65.3% of employed fathers were the primary caregivers for their children, 74.3% of employed and 83.7% of employed fathers stated that both parents fairly cared for the children when both parents were home. In general, it was found that stay-at-home fathers as compared to employed fathers said they were primary care givers compared to employed fathers who stated the mother was the primary care giver when both parents were at home. When combining the personal attributes and the social roles questionnaires, there is a correlation between higher scores on femininity and higher score on masculinity, and less universal gender roles attitudes. In addition, the times spend as a stay-home father and liking it were not significantly related with the personal attributes or social roles questionnaire. Pertaining to the reasons questionnaire, the two most profound reasons were they really want to be stay-at-home fathers and the partner influences with seventy-one point four percent of the partner making more money, 31.5% of partner to pursue career and 42.8% for encouragement. According to the research, it was determined that the most important reasons why we have stay-at-home were they really want to be stay-at-home fathers and the partner influences. In my point of view, those stay-at-home fathers as per their reasons demonstrate that these fathers are either lazy or want to give their responsibilities as breadwinner....
References: Fischer, J., & Anderson, V. N. (2012). Gender role attitudes and characteristics of stay-at-home and employed fathers. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 13(1), 16-31.
Katz-Wise, S. L., Priess, H. A., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). Gender-role attitudes and behavior across the transition to parenthood. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 18-28.
Lilly, M. M., & Valdez, C. E. (2012). Interpersonal trauma and PTSD: The roles of gender and a lifespan perspective in predicting risk. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 140-144.
Wester, S. R., Christianson, H., Vogel, D. L., & Wei, M. (2007). Gender role conflict and psychological distress: The role of social support. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(4), 215-224.
Whited, M. C., & Larkin, K. T. (2009). Sex differences in cardiovascular reactivity: Influence of the gender role relevance of social tasks. Journal of Psychophysiology, 23(2), 77-84.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document