Gender in South Africa

Topics: South Africa, Africa, African Union Pages: 17 (4971 words) Published: May 29, 2013
ABSTRACT
Apartheid imposed strict restrictions that hindered the wellbeing of South African women. Black women were often left for domestic occupations in white neighborhoods or resort to low wage earning jobs at industrial plants. Various movements such as the Women’s League of the African National Congress (ANC) rose in order to protest against apartheid restrictions and discriminatory legislation in the 1950s. When South Africa’s authoritative regime was approaching its end in the 1990s, the ANC proposed new legislation that a third of political appointments would be allotted to women. Unfortunately, twenty years later, African women are still faced with the same marginal disparities in accessing education, employment, and health care despite South Africa’s progressive strides into civil society. This study examines the development of South African women in the nation’s new “democratic” era.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.THE STUDY
The Problem and Its Setting
Statement of Problem
Research Questions
Terminology
Methodology
Review of Literature
Significance of the Study
Research Limitations
2.FINDINGS
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY

SECTION 1: THE STUDY
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Statement of the Problem
This research examines political, economic, and cultural impact of South African women’s movements. The study will explore the following questions: (1) Is the South African Parliament truly gender-sensitive in its transition to a fully-fledged democracy?; (2) Where are women in the formal and informal economy relative to men?; (3) Which cultural impediments hinder the South Africa’s transition to civil society?

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.Is the South African Parliament truly gender-sensitive in its conversion to a fully-fledged democracy? This question analyzes the political structure of the country on party and policy boundaries. -Are interests of the African National Congress aligned with the interests of women’s movements? -Has the implementation of national gender machineries served its role in the bureaucratic system? -Does gender-sensitive legislation have any strong precedent in the political reformation of South Africa?

2.Where are women in the formal and informal economy relative to men? This question analyzes the economic effect of gender divided society. -What kinds of national policies/strategies are in place to address poverty? -Which disparities exist for the access of health care and education on racial, ethnic, and gender lines?

3.Which cultural impediments hinder the South Africa’s transition to civil society? This question analyzes the socio-cultural implications of a society in full transition from one system to another. -Has the transition into democracy played a role in the perception of women?

TERMINOLOGY
Affirmative Action is defined as a compilation of policies to assist an underrepresented group in education and employment in order to counteract the effects of discrimination. In South Africa, this was demonstrated through the Employment Equity Act of 1998. African Feminism is defined as a feminist movement uprising from racist and sexist ideologies. African feminism is seen by some historians a branch of African nationalism. Democracy is defined as a form of government where all citizens of a nation collectively participate to determine the policies, laws, and actions of their state in which there is an equal opportunity to exercise their opinion. Democratization is defined as a nation’s transition from an authoritarian regime to a democracy; democratization is influenced by a variety of factors, including economic development, transparency of government, the electorate, freedom of the press, civil society, access to education and health care, and gender equality. Depatriarchalization is defined as the process of dismantling patriarchal structures in...

Bibliography: (1994). South Africa 's National Policy Framework for Women 's Empowerment and Gender Equality. The Office on the Status of Women.
(2007). Gender Terminology. United States Agency of International Development.
(2009). The National Gender Machinery, Gender Mainstreaming and the Fight against Gender Based Violence. Africa Development Fund.
(2008). Protocol on Gender and Development. Southern African Development Community.
Ackerly, B. A., Stern, M., & True, J. (2006). Feminist Methodologies for International Relations (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Beall, J., Gelb, S., & Hassim, S. (2005). Fragile Stability: State and Society in Democratic South Africa. Journal of Southern African Studies, 31(4), 681-700.
Bernstein A
Binns, T., & Robinson, R. (2002). Sustaining Democracy in the 'New ' South Africa. Geography, 87(1), 25-37.
Code, L
Cornelissen, S., & Horstmeier, S. (2002). The Social and Political Construction of Identities in the New South Africa: An Analysis of the Western Cape Province. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 40(1), 55-82.
Gawaya, R., & Mukasa, R
Geisler, G. (2000). Parliament is Another Terrain of Struggle ': Women, Men and Politics in South Africa. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 38(4), 605-630.
Goetz, A
Hassim, S. (2003). The Gender Pact and Democratic Consolidation: Institutionalizing Gender Equality in the South African State. Feminist Studies, Inc., 29(3), 504-528.
Hassim, S
Htun, M. (2004). Is Gender like Ethnicity? The Political Representation of Identity Groups. Perspectives on Politics, 2(3), 439-458.
Hawker, G. (2000). Political Leadership in the ANC: The South African Provinces 1994-1999. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 38(4), 631-658.
Lodge, T
Longwe, S. H. (2000). Towards Realistic Strategies for Women 's Political Empowerment in Africa. Oxfam GB, Gender and Development, 8(3), 24-30.
Longwe, S
Johnson, K., & Jacobs, S. (2011). Encyclopedia of South Africa. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Meer, S. (2005). Freedom for Women: Mainstreaming Gender in the South African Liberation Struggle and Beyond. Oxfam GB, Gender and Development, 13(2), 36-45.
Mikell, G
Mtintso, T. (2003). Representivity: False Sisterhood or Universal Women 's Interests? The South African Experience. Feminist Studies, 29(3), 569-579.
Robertson, C
Schatzberg, M. G. (1993). Power, Legitimacy and 'Democratisation ' in Africa. Cambridge University Press, International African Institute, 63(4), 445-461.
Seidman, G
Stremlau, J. J., & Zille, H. (1997). A House No Longer Divided: Progress and Prospects for Democratic Peace in South Africa. New York: Carnegie Corporation.
Viterna, J., & Fallon, K. M. (2008). Democratization, Women 's Movements, and Gender-Equitable States: A Framework for Comparison. American Sociological Review, 73(4), 668-689.
Zuern, E
Zulu, L. (1998). Role of Women in the Reconstruction and Development of the New Democratic South Africa. Feminist Studies, 24(1), 147-157.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Gender Equality in South Africa
  • Gender Violence in South Africa Research Paper
  • South Africa Essay
  • South Africa Essay
  • Essay on South Africa
  • South Africa Essay
  • Essay on South Africa
  • South Africa Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free