This paper will discuss issues dealing with the roles of biological factors, (nature), and environmental influences, (nurture), on sexual differentiation and gender identity. The author, Troy Stutsman, will evaluate and give a determination as to which has the greater influence on gender identity: nature or nurture. Also discussed will be the current arguments about sexual identity and how evidence from biopsychology which may help to resolve the argument. What is gender identity
Gender identity is a person’s concept of him or herself whether male or female, this can be either the same as their biological gender or it could be different (Schwartz, 2008). Most of the people out there are satisfied at being the gender they were born, though some may feel that they should be the opposite sex. Nature
The debate between nature versus nurture concerning gender differences has gone on for many years. It is believed that women who believe in a social gender theory would tend to be more likely to not accept gender stereotypical characteristics including negative feminine traits than women who believed in a biological gender theory (Coleman, Hong, Jan-Mar 2008). “Biological, and certain physical conditions (chromosomes, external and internal genitalia, hormonal states and secondary sex characteristics), lead to the determination of male or female sex.” (Ohle, 2006. Para. 3). There are researchers that believe having an excess of one hormone is the cause of homosexuality though there have been no data to prove this as true or false (Schwartz, 2008). A person’s gender role is often created in a society by factors such as observed behaviors and appearances. Different environmental factors can cause sexual differentiation or gender identity disorders (Ghosh, 2009). Nurture
A person’s gender as opposed to their sex is mainly a social construction and their own thoughts and feelings about their gender have a large impact on the development...
References: Coleman, J. M., Hong, Y. Y. (Jan-Mar 2008). Self & Identity, Vol. 7 Issue 1, p34-53, 20p, 1 Chart; DOI: 10.1080/15298860600980185
Dreger, A. (2009). Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood: Inconclusive Advice to Parents. The Hastings Center Report, 39(1). 26-9. From: ProQuest database.
Ghosh, S. MD (2009). Sexuality, Gender Identity. From: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/917990-overview
Ohle, A. (2006). The Effects of Culture on Gender Identity. From: http://ematusov.soe.udel.edufinal.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/000000a8.htm
Schwartz, N. (2008). Genes, Hormones, and Sexuality. The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide, 15(1), 21-23. From: ProQuest database.
Swaab, D., & Garcia-Falgueras, A. (2009). Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation. Functional Neurology, 24(1), 17-28. From: ProQuest database.
Wickens, A. P. (2005). Foundations of Biopsychology (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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