gender equality

Topics: Limited company, Integers, High school Pages: 23 (790 words) Published: October 16, 2014
GENDER EQUALITY:
PROBLEMS, STRATEGIES AND
SOLUTIONS
Mari Teigen
Institute for Social Research
Bergen, 20. september 2012

Outline
• Problems
• Strategies

• Solutions

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

The Principle of Gender
Equality
• Parity Participation / Everyones right to
participate on an equal footing





Economical participation
Cultural participation
Political participation

• Multi-dimensionality

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

…. principle continues ……
• Multi-dimensionality
• Implications

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

Policy for Equality
• Government commission to report on
Norwegian gender equality policy ++
• White paper I: Structure for Equality
• White paper II: Policy for Equality

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

Four Areas of Priority
• Democracy
• Freedom of choice

• Redistribution
• Vulnerability

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

GENDER EQUALITY PROBLEMS

Upper Secondary School
Type of
secondary
education

Women

Men

General studies

55 %

45 %

Vocational –
Health and Care

88 %

12 %

Vocational –
Electricity and
Construction

5%

95 %

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

100 %
90 %
80 %
70 %
60 %
50 %
40 %
30 %
20 %
10 %
0%
ICT

El&Mec

Math&Stat

Physics&Math

Business…

Biology

Medicine

Law

General teacher

Psychology

Pedagogy

Social subjects

Pre-school ped

Health&Care

Higher education

Men

Women

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

Employment
• Stability in horizontal gender segregated patterns
• Women dominate the public sector, men in the private
sector



70 percent in public sector are women
Less than 40 percent in private sector are women

• 40 percent of all employed women work part-time
• Mechanism of public sector attraction for women

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

Male-dominance in Norwegian
top-positions 2001 – 2011 (%)
100

80

63
60

76 75

70
59

59

84

81

80
65

77

77

100
96

96

94

93

87
78

64

40

20

0

2001

2011
Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

Male-dominance in Norwegian top-positions, total and
research & higher education 2001 – 2011 (%)
100

83
80

75

80
65

60

40

2001
2011

20

0

Elite - Total

Research & higher education

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

GENDER EQUALITY STRATEGIES

Family/Redistributive Policies
• Parental leave policies
• Kinder-gardens

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

Mainstreaming Policies
• Integration of equality promotion in day-to-day
work
• Lack of monitoring and authority
• Large variation in scope and consistency
Conclusion:
Mainstreaming means ad hoc, isolated and project driven equality work – no accumulation of knowledge and method development

Institutt for samfunnsforskning
www.samfunnsforskning.no

Positive Action Policies
Field of society

Employment

Adopted

Promoting
procedures

Education

Types

Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
1981 (additional points)
1997 (earmarking
procedure)

Preferential
treatment

Preferential
treatment

Upper secondary
education, 1982
Norwegian School of
Economics and Business
Administration, 1980

State sector, 1981;
municipal sector, 1985

Procedures

Candidates of the
underrepresented gender
are given priority in cases
of equal qualifications
(same amount of school
points).
Additional school points
granted to applicants of
the underrepresented
gender; earmarking of
school/student places for
candidates of the
underrepresented gender,
with strict restrictions
according to...
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