Gender and Masculinity

Powerful Essays
Topics: Gender, Gender role
Femininity/Masculinity
Jan E. Stets and Peter J. Burke Department of Sociology, Washington State University Pp. 997-1005 in Edgar F. Borgatta and Rhonda J. V. Montgomery (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Sociology, Revised Edition. New York: Macmillan. Introduction Femininity and masculinity or one 's gender identity (Burke, Stets and Pirog-Good 1988; Spence 1985) refers to the degree to which persons see themselves as masculine or feminine given what it means to be a man or woman in society. Femininity and masculinity are rooted in the social (one 's gender) rather than the biological (one 's sex). Societal members decide what being male or female means (e.g., dominant or passive, brave or emotional), and males will generally respond by defining themselves as masculine while females will generally define themselves as feminine. Because these are social definitions, however, it is possible for one to be female and see herself as masculine or male and see himself as feminine. It is important to distinguish gender identity, as presented above, from other gender-related concepts such as gender roles which are shared expectations of behavior given one 's gender. For example, gender roles might include women investing in the domestic role and men investing in the worker role (Eagly 1987). The concept of gender identity is also different from gender stereotypes which are shared views of personality traits often tied to one 's gender such as instrumentality in men and expressiveness in women (Spence and Helmreich 1978). And, gender identity is different from gender attitudes that are the views of others or situations commonly associated with one 's gender such as men thinking in terms of justice and women thinking in terms of care (Gilligan 1982). Although gender roles, gender stereotypes and gender attitudes

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influence one 's gender identity, they are not the same as gender identity (Katz 1986; Spence and Sawin 1985). From a sociological perspective, gender identity



References: Ashmore, Richard D., Frances K. Del Boca, and Arthur J. Wohlers. 1986. "Gender Stereotypes." Pp. 69-119 in Richard D. Ashmore and Frances K. Del Boca (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Female-Male Relations: A Critical Analysis of Central Concepts. New York: Academic Press. Bem, Sandra, L. 1974. "The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 42: 155-162. Bem, Sandra L. 1977. "On the Utility of Alternative Procedures for Assessing Psychological Androgyny." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 45: 196-205. Bem, Sandra L. 1981. "Gender Schema Theory: A Cognitive Account of Sex Typing." Psychological Review 88: 354-364. Bem, Sandra L. 1993. The Lenses of Gender: Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality. New Haven: Yale University Press. Biernat, Monica. 1991. "Gender Stereotypes and the Relationship Between Masculinity and Femininity: A Developmental Analysis." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61: 351-365. Burke, Peter J. 1980. "The Self: Measurement Implications from a Symbolic Interactionist Perspective." Social Psychology Quarterly 43: 18-29. Burke, Peter J. 1989. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology Quarterly 52: 159-169. Burke, Peter J. 1991. "Identity Processes and Social Stress." American Sociological Review 56: 836-849. Burke, Peter J. and Alicia D. Cast. 1997. "Stability and Change in the Gender Identities of Newly Married Couples." Social Psychology Quarterly 60: 277-290. 17 Burke, Peter J. and Donald C. Reitzes. 1981. "The Link Between Identity and Role Performance." Social Psychology Quarterly 44: 83-92. Burke, Peter J., Jan E. Stets, and Maureen A. Pirog-Good. 1988. "Gender Identity, Self-Esteem, and Physical and Sexual Abuse in Dating Relationships." Social Psychology Quarterly 51: 272-285. Burke, Peter J. and Judy Tully. 1977. "The Measurement of Role/Identity." Social Forces 55: 880-897. Chodorow, Nancy. 1978. The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press. Drass, Kriss A. 1986. "The Effect of Gender Identity on Conversation." Social Psychology Quarterly 49: 294-301. Eagly, Alice H. 1987. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social-Role Interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Freud, Sigmund. 1927. "Some Psychological Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction Between the Sexes." International Journal of Psychoanalysis 8: 133-142. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women 's Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. James, Deborah and Sandra Clarke. 1993. "Women, Men and Interruptions: A Critical Review." Pp. 231-280 in Deborah Tannen (Ed.), Gender and Conversational Interaction. New York: Oxford University Press. James, Deborah and Janice Drakich. 1993. "Understanding Gender Differences in Amount of Talk: A Critical Review of Research." Pp. 281-312 in Deborah Tannen (Ed.), Gender and Conversational Interaction. New York: Oxford University Press. 18 Katz, Phyllis A. 1986. "Gender Identity: Development and Consequences." Pp. 21-67 in Richard D. Ashmore and Frances K. Del Boca (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Female-Male Relations: A Critical Analysis of Central Concepts. New York: Academic Press. Kohlberg, Lawrence. 1966. "A Cognitive-Developmental Analysis of Children 's Sex-Role Concepts and Attitudes." In Eleanor E. Maccoby (Ed.), The Development of Sex Differences. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Lindesmith, Alfred R. and Anselm L. Strauss. 1956. Social Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Lipman-Blumen, Jean. 1984. Gender Roles and Power. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Maccoby, Eleanor E. and Carol N. Jacklin. 1974. The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Mead, Margaret. 1935. Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. New York: Dell. Mischel, Walter. 1966. "A Social-Learning View of Sex Differences in Behavior." Pp. 56-81 in Eleanor E. Maccoby (Ed.), The Development of Sex Differences. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Morawski, J. G. 1985. "The Measurement of Masculinity and Femininity: Engendering Categorical Realities." Pp. 108-135 in Abigail J. Stewart and M. Brinton Lykes (Eds.), Gender and Personality: Current Perspectives on Theory and Research. Durham: Duke University Press. Morawski, J. G. 1987. "The Troubled Quest for Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny." Pp. 44-69 in Phillip Shaver and Clyde Hendrick (Eds.), Sex and Gender. Newbury Park: Sage. Osgood, Charles E., George J. Succi, and Percy H. Tannenbaum. 1957. The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 19 Spence, Janet T. 1984. "Masculinity, Femininity, and Gender-Related Traits: A Conceptual Analysis and Critique of Current Research." Pp. 2-97 in B. A. Maher and W. Maher (Eds.), Progress in Experimental Research. San Diego: Academic Press. Spence, Janet T. 1985. "Gender Identity and Implications for Concepts of Masculinity and Femininity." Pp. 59-96 in T. B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Psychology and Gender. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Spence, Janet T. 1993. "Gender-Related Traits and Gender Ideology: Evidence for a Multifactorial Theory." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64: 624-635. Spence, Janet T. and Robert L. Helmreich. 1978. Masculinity and Femininity: Their Psychological Dimensions, Correlates, and Antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press. Spence, Janet T. and Robert L. Helmreich. 1980. "Masculine Instrumentality and Feminine Expressiveness: Their Relationships with Sex Role Attitudes and Behaviors." Psychology of Women Quarterly 5: 147-163. Spence, Janet T. and Linda L. Sawin. 1985. "Images of Masculinity and Femininity: A Reconceptualization." Pp. 35-66 in Virginia E. O 'Leary, Rhoda Kesler Unger, and Barbara Strudler Wallston (Eds.), Women, Gender, and Social Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Spencer, J. William and Kriss A. Drass. 1989. "The Transformation of Gender Into Conversational Advantage: A Symbolic Interactionist Approach." The Sociological Quarterly 30: 363-383. Stets, Jan E. and Peter J. Burke. 1996. "Gender, Control, and Interaction." Social Psychology Quarterly 59: 193-220. 20 Storms, Michael D. 1979. "Sex Role Identity and its Relationships to Sex Role Attitudes and Sex Role Stereotypes." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 1779-1789. Stryker, Sheldon. 1980. Symbolic Interactionism. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. Terman, Lews M. and Catherine C. Miles. 1936. Sex and Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill. Weitzman, Lenore J. 1979. Sex Role Socialization. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield. 21

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