Unit 1- Dynamic Planet
Brief overview study guide
Please use this booklet with caution – it is designed to give a summary of some of the key ideas and point you in the right direction for case studies. It does not however cover everything and has little case study detail.
A full revision programme also needs:
Revision using your notes
Ensuring you understand key terms and can give definitions of them. Learning key facts about case studies
Completion of past papers and subsequent use of mark schemes for checking answers
Topic 1: Restless Earth
What are the four “spheres” on earth and how do they interact? Geosphere (rocks and land)
Biosphere (all living things including plants and animals
Atmosphere (gases surrounding earth)
Hydrosphere (water anywhere on planet in any other sphere)
2. What is the structure of the earth?
Upper mantle (asthenosphere)
You need to know how the temperature and density of each layer changes (see book notes) 3. What causes the Earth’s crust to move?
Convection currents – heat from the Earth’s core causes magma to circulate beneath the Earth’s crust and move plates.
You should know the process that generates the heat.
Depending on the position of the convection currents plates will move in different directions 4. What features and consequences (hazards) does movement of the Earth’s crust have? Features: Plate boundaries
Constructive – plates move away from each other to make more land Destructive – plates move towards each other and create fold mountains and ocean trenches Conservative – plates move alongside each other causing earthquakes Collision – same as destructive but to continents meet and create fold mountains Consequences: Earthquakes and volcanoes (see below key questions) 5.
How do volcanic hazards affect people in different locations? (LEARN YOUR CASE STUDIES!) Developed (richer) world example = Eyjakafajkull volcano in Iceland Developing (poorer) world = Mount Nyiragongo in Democratic republic of Congo Refer to your notes on comparing these two volcanoes and identify answers to these questions How are the causes of each volcano different?
How were people affected differently by each volcano?
How did each country respond to the volcano differently?
How do earthquakes impact on developed & developing countries? (LEARN YOUR CASE STUDIES!) Developed world example = USA – Loma Prieta earthquake
Developing world = Haiti earthquake
How well countries are prepared for earthquakes has a big impact on how they cope – do they have technology to build structures that can withstand shaking etc? How are the structures in each country different (remember diagrams – bamboo vs steel framed pendulum buildings...)
7. How can hazards be managed?
Developing world = pendulum skyscrapers; developed world – houses built on stilts with lightweight roofing material, simple additionally strengthened corners
Predicting earthquakes and volcanoes using seismometers
Having early warning systems with sirens and alarms in place
Asthenosphere – the upper part of the earth’s mantle, where the rocks are more fluid. Collision plate boundary – a tectonic margin at which two continental plates come together. Conservative plate boundary – where two tectonic plates slide past each other. Constructive plate boundary – tectonic plate margin where rising magma adds new material to the diverging plates.
Continental crust – the part of the crust dominated by less dense granitic rocks. Convection currents - circulating movements of magma in the mantle caused by heat from the core. Core – the central part of the earth, consisting of a solid inner core and a more fluid outer core, mostly composed of iron and nickel.
Destructive plate boundary – tectonic plate margins where oceanic plate is subducted....
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