The frequency depends on the incidence of natural disasters and environmental trauma, e.g. earthquakes. In local areas where there are epidemics of viral myositis (muscle inflammation) In urban areas with a high incidence of drug and alcohol abuse Causes little or no death unless it is associated with the secondary complications of rhabdomyolysis, including hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, and acute kidney injury It tends to affect males more than females because of the former group's predisposition to trauma and participation in strenuous physical exercise. In a recent large retrospective review, the median age was 11 years. The leading cause of rhabdomyolysis in the 0-9 year age range was viral myositis, whereas the leading diagnosis in the 9-18 year age range was trauma. Signs and Symptoms
The urine appears dark or burgundy.
There is pain and tenderness in the affected muscles.
There may be weakness of the damaged muscles.
Biochemical Disorder (brief description and explanation using concepts in biochemistry, cell biology, and or genetics Rhabdomyolysis can be defined as a clinical syndrome associated with the breakdown of skeletal muscle fibres and myocyte cell membranes, leading to release of muscle contents into the circulation, resulting in multiple complications, including HYPERLINK "http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/hyperkalaemia" hyperkalaemia. It is a medical emergency and can lead to cardiac arrest if not promptly treated. Myoglobinuria is an early feature of rhabdomyolysis. Myocyte function under normal circumstances is maintained by adenosine triphosphate-dependent channels which ensure effective cell ion levels and play a role in calcium efflux from myocytes. Damage to the myocyte membrane, eg due to trauma or lack of energy for the cell membrane channels, causes an increase in the amount of calcium in the cell, which leads to apoptosis through various proteolytic enzymes. This...
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