Gang Injunctions

Topics: Gang, Injunction, Crime Pages: 80 (10587 words) Published: February 24, 2014

 

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First California, Then Utah, Should Idaho Follow Suit?
Effectiveness and Constitutionality
of
Gang Injunctions
Ryan Jacobsen*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 1 GENERAL STANDARD FOR ISSUING AN INJUNCTION .................................... 3 WHAT IS A CIVIL GANG INJUNCTION? ............................................................... 4 HISTORY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF GANG INJUNCTIONS .............................. 6 A. Brief History ........................................................................................................... 6 B. Effectiveness ........................................................................................................... 9 THE OPPORTUNITY TO BE HEARD ..................................................................... 11 SCOPE OF “SAFETY ZONE” REQUIRED TO PASS

EQUITABLE AND CONSTITUTIONAL MUSTER................................................ 14 CHARACTERISTICS OF IDAHO GANGS ............................................................. 16 POSSIBLE MORE EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVES ................................................ 18 CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................... 21 A. How Future Gang Injunctions Should Look .......................................................... 21 B. Gang Injunctions’ Effectiveness in Idaho .............................................................. 21 I. INTRODUCTION

Since 1997, when the Supreme Court of California upheld the first permanent civil gang injunction that made its way before the court,1 the use of gang injunctions as a tool to abate criminal gang activity has rapidly increased in California, with over 150 injunctions in effect throughout the state,2 and is just now beginning to take root in other states.3 One primary reason for an increase in the use of gang injunctions is most likely due to ever-increasing gang members and gang-related crimes.4 The most recent gang threat assessment conducted by the FBI indicates that there are approximately 1.4 million gang members nationwide who belong to more than

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
* Ryan Jacobsen is an associate of the Idaho Law Review and worked as an intern judicial law clerk for Utah’s Second District Court during the Ogden Trece permanent gang injunction trial. 1
See generally People ex. rel. Gallo v. Acuna, 14 Cal.4th 1090 (1997). 2
MATHEW D. O’DEANE, GANG INJUNCTIONS AND ABATEMENT: CIVIL REMEDIES TO CURB GANG-RELATED CRIMES 1 (2011).
3
See, e.g., State v. Martinez, 323 S.W.3d 493 (2010); see also Weber County v. Ogden Trece, No. 100906446 (Utah 2nd Dist. 2012).
4
See Jamie Grey, An inside look at the Treasure Valley gang problem, KTVB.COM (May. 21, 2012, 8:55 PM), http://www.ktvb.com/news/An-inside-look-at-the-Treasure-Valley-gang-problem-152371035.html; see also NATIONAL GANG INTELLIGENCE CENTER, NATIONAL GANG THREAT ASSESSMENT: EMERGING TRENDS 11, 15 (2011), available at http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/2011-national-gang-threat-assessment.


 

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33,000 different gangs and rising.5 In Idaho, although many individuals fail to see the magnitude of the gang problem, law enforcement asserts that it is very real.6 For example, one ex-gang member from Boise stated that, in his experience, gang membership in Idaho is “a revolving door…[o]ne person gets out, three more people get in.”7 Indeed, the FBI’s assessment ranks Idaho among the top five states with the most gang members per capita, with an estimated six or more gang members for every thousand...
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