M.Tech CSE, IIIT
M.Tech CSE, IIIT
M.Tech CSE, IIIT
Abstract—This paper reviews the gamification trend, the
concept of gamification. It also provides some examples of the wide use of gamification in tourism, healthcare, education, social causes, crowdsourcing, business, and social network.
Gamification is a significant, emerging trend for the coming years.
Keywords—gamification, customer engagement,
motivation, social media, badges, achievements, rewards
Gamification takes enjoyment and attains voluntary user
participation by offering problem-solving methods of fun facts. The advantage of Gamification is that it rewards
accomplishment of action toward goal and task. Elements such as points, level-up, and ranking stimulates internal and external motives toward the subject matter and maintains voluntary
Gamification has drawn the attention of academics,
practitioners and business professionals in domains as diverse as education, information studies, human–computer interaction, and health.
Motivation is a central topic in gamification as gamified
systems are implemented to encourage change for wanted and
desirable activities. Motivation in gamification uses a twofolded approach. First, extrinsic motivation focuses on applying gamified elements into a non-gaming context to
stimulate external motivation. Second, game thinking and
motivational design has a positive influence on intrinsic
Intrinsic motivation is an innate drive to do something (or
your pursuit of activities that are rewarding in and of
themselves). Extrinsic motivation pushes you to do (or avoid) something because of an external reward or punishment.
Gamification Techniques strive to leverage people's
natural desires for competition, achievement, status, selfexpression, altruism, and closure. A core gamification strategy is rewards for players who accomplish desired tasks. Types of rewards include points, achievement badges or levels, the
filling of a progress bar, and providing the user with virtual
currency. Competition is another element of games that can be used in Gamification. Making the rewards for accomplishing
tasks visible to other players or providing leaderboards are ways of encouraging players to compete. Another approach to
gamification is to make existing tasks feel more like games. Some techniques used in this approach include adding
meaningful choice, on-boarding with a tutorial, increasing
challenge and adding narrative.
Categories of Gamification are External, Internal and
External includes the B2C (Business to Customer)
experience, when a business want to use Gamification to
increase sales, engagement, fan loyalty, get users feedback, users collaboration, etc. Internal is the use of Gamification to improve worker efficiency and satisfaction in the workplace. Behavior change is the use of Gamification to motivate users to improve skills or change habits; as study better, lose weight, among others.
Growth of Gamification Gamification has gained much
interest in the last few years. One way to see the increased interest is visible in the amount of searches for the term
„Gamification‟ on Google Search Engine, shown in Figure 1. According to a Gartner Research Report, it is estimated that by 2015, more than 50 percent of organizations that manage
innovation processes will gamify those processes. By the end of 2014, Gartner predicts that over 70 percent of Global 2000 organizations will have at least one "gamified" application, and that "gamification is positioned to become a significant trend in the next five years."
Thanks to Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and other social
media sites, we are all more comfortable sharing information about ourselves then we ever were before. Companies can
connect directly with their customers more easily now than in the past. Enlightened companies are using these new channels to communicate with their customers to influence their brand loyalty. Internally, employees experienced with the use of
social media have higher expectation with regard to virtual
collaboration, fast feedback, transparency, and competition. This shift in attitude helps the general acceptance of
gamification within the company.
A. Gamification in Healthcare Industry
Healthcare Industry can learn from the world of gaming.
Encouraging people to play games, or at least applying the
principles that make games work to get people to focus on their health and wellness, can help solve a problem with which
healthcare professionals have long battled: engagement. And
when the experience is social, the engagement is even greater. 1) Gamifying the patient experience
Gamification keeps the patient interested and engaged by
offering a mechanism through which daily progress can be
monitored and recorded. Badges and other rewards can be
offered for completing simple tasks -- an approach that breaks down an overall (and often overwhelming) goal into smaller,
more easily achieved milestones.
Zamzee is a social enterprise established in 2010 by
HopeLab, a nonprofit research organization that leverages the power and appeal of technology to improve children‟s health. Noting that young people today are often not intrinsically
motivated to exercise, the company set out to create a gamified motivational program and a connected device that would
engage, motivate and have a lasting and positive impact on the program‟s participants.
Boston Heart Diagnostics is a health management
company that offers diagnostic and patient management
solutions to predict, prevent, manage and reverse
cardiovascular disease. Boston Heart provides patients with
proprietary tests and the application of cardio-informatics, and then goes a step further to provide a personalized treatment plan and support tools to guide positive lifestyle and nutrition changes that can impact heart health.
B. Gamification in Disaster-Management
A natural disaster is an occasion when a society is afflicted by a natural event and the damage is so great that external
assistance is required. The information that is relied on for disaster management is of crucial importance and must be
accurate, timely, and complete with regard to the current state of environmental variables, so that it can be used to support predictions about upcoming changes and associated impacts.
Tools and technologies based on social media concepts, have
been widely employed to assist in activities and procedures
related to disaster management.
Elements of gamification, as well as social media, are
coupled with GSCA (Gamification-based Social Collaborative
Architecture) with a view to encouraging volunteers to
participate further. For example, volunteers at GSCA can take part in special missions, which include the features of games like scores, badges and rankings which reflect the abilities and achievements of the participants. This architecture is based on Crowdsourcing and Volunteered Geographic Information
(VGI), which provide content to support the acquisition of
1) Components of GSCA
a. Communication – Through communities, forums or
User profiles - A system of overall ranking is
employed for all the participants, and this encourages
them to become more full involved in a spirit of
Missions - The goal of these activities is to encourage
the participation of a large number of people as well
as to ensure that they will continue to assist societies
to become resilient to accidents such as floods or
tornadoes. This can be accomplished by offering the
activities in the form of "missions", in which the
participants volunteer to fulfill certain tasks with
specific goals and rewards.
Knowledge - is composed of three main elements: (1)
news related to natural disasters, (2) exchange of
experiences between volunteers and (3) missions.
2) Gamifying the employee experience
Employees are the lifeblood of the healthcare industry, and
like all organizations today, healthcare facilities are eager to raise the focus, value and commitment of their employees.
WorldOne, a company focused on delivering the highest
quality healthcare data in the industry. The company‟s global offices provide clients with data collection and processing
services, survey programming, hosting and translation.
WorldOne members complete surveys, provide thought
leadership content, collaborate with one another and post and respond to various topics of discussion.
By incorporating the appropriate set of gamification
mechanics into virtually any area of the health-care industry, companies can create an experience that drives positive
behavior by leveraging motivators. Whether your company is
looking to assist its patients in their march towards better health, interested in achieving higher levels of customer
satisfaction or hoping to increase doctor participation,
gamification could be the solution that provides the impact
you‟ve been looking for.
The quantity and quality of reported information depends
on the number of volunteers willing to help with data related to their community. Finally, there is also the need to adopt
mechanisms to recruit volunteers so that they can provide
useful assistance to emergency agencies.
One solution could be achieved via the integration of
gamification techniques that involve practices of collaborative systems, the main objective of GSCA. Thus, a web platform
called Voluntary in Action is displayed as an implementation of this architecture. The volunteer can see the score of the volunteers of his team, his badge, overall ranking and ranking mission. It also encourages him/her to participate in diverse activities and increase the quantity of geo-referenced elements. The platform also stores data related to how volunteers interact with each other using a chat line to achieve the mission.
Through the platform, it is possible to detect factors that may influence the achievement of future actions related to disasters, and carry out missions as a basis to make recommendations
2) Future Scope
The platform could provide specific features for
professionals of emergency agencies, to create their own
missions to increase the knowledge generated by the platform, and thus eliminate the problem of a possible lack of
information. There will be a chance to locate professionals who are working in risk areas through maps and thus aid the
coordination of field activities.
C. Gamification in Tourism
Tourism industry is a service industry, which emphasizes
very much on experiences co-created by tourists and service
providers. The level of consumer integration in the value
creation depends on how tourism organizations empower
tourist to play a role in new product development. Gamification can be applied in two ways in these systems. The concept can be used either to encourage customer engagement and enhance
the experience or to improve employee engagement within an
organization. The aim of applying gamification in tourism falls into two groups. First, gamification shall increase the
motivation of tourists and employees in order to gain a
behavior change (buying products, work efficiently). Second, gamification shall enable tourists and employees for a value co-creation and thus provoke an intrinsic motivation.
Gamification can be used by tourism organizations for
marketing, sales and customer engagement (external
application) or in human resources, training, productivity
enhancement and crowd sourcing (internal application).
1) Benefits of Gamification in Tourism
a. Encourage tourist engagement
b. Enhance tourist experiences
c. Improve tourist loyalty
d. Increase tourism brand awareness
American Airlines Gamified mobile app represents current
elite status qualification visually.
Turkish Airlines QR-coded national flags have been
placed on 100 digital bus shelters for London 2012. Users who read the code can win a ticket to Australia. Goal is to have most check-ins in one place or individual places.
Shop kick users are engaged with products by applying
game mechanics for incentivizing offers prior to shop visits. The gamification also involves a geo-targeted approach to
drive local engagement. The aim is to influence buyers‟
behavior via game mechanics.
Check Points customers scan products to exchange for
checkpoints which than can be exchanged for virtual currency or gift cards.
Starwood SPG program Partnership with Foursquare to
provide customers 250 bonus points per check-in and chances
to unlock a hidden Free Resort Night Award.
Marriott My Hotel aim of the social media game is to
recruit new staff for job vacancies and familiarize players with various parts of a hotel.
Foursquare users can claim mayor ships, unlock badges,
receive special offers & rewards such as discounts to specific retailers while also tracking against friends via a leaderboard while checking-in at a restaurant etc.
3) Future Scope
a. The implication of gamification in different sectors in
b. The inward (employee training) and outward
(customer engagement) implication of gamification.
c. Empirical studies on the effectiveness of how
gamification contributing to tourist experiences and
D. Gamification in Crowdsourcing
Crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed ideas,
services, and content by seeking contributions from large group of people; especially from an online community rather than
from traditional employees/suppliers. Gamification has creative impact initiating Brainstorming. Gamification increases
motivation for users to participate in crowdsourcing projects, which are typical non-gaming activities.
To study potential value of gamification in creative
crowdsourcing, 5 experts from different fields were
interviewed on the basis of relevance and potential usage of gamification, how to implement gamification mechanics and
how gamification will develop for creative crowdsourcing.
1) There is no common view of gamification in this area
a. Can be used as unique selling point for social media
platforms to distance from competitors.
b. Can be used in more strategic way for long term
obligation of casual gamers.
IBM, Amazon, SCN (SAP Community Network) etc. bring
the concept of Open Innovation.
3) Metrics used for interviews
a. Relevance and Potential
b. Implementation and design
4) Conclusion & Future Work
a. Research on gamification in creative crowdsourcing
must not only limit its analysis on motivational
aspects but shall lay more stress on investigation of
effects on creative performance.
b. Also not only relevance of gamification in
crowdsourcing is accessed differently, strategic
considerations vary as well.
As long as basic assumption within the fields of
creativity research and sociology are not answered,
there will be no consensus about the relevance and
implementation of gamification in creative
E. Gamification using video games as interactive learning
1) Game based learning
Using video games that have a learning objective, leisure
and serious, in schools to enhance and support learning.
A study in Ref. deals with a research project, where a
social learning on-line platform schoooools.com is applied to students from 6 up to 12 years old, where selected gamification features, available as tools in the platform, will be used for field tests, allowing a teacher to do social gamification of her/his lessons.
3) So far, approaches to Game-Based Learning
a. Using commercial off-the-shelf videogames (COTS),
existence of contents in these games can be used for
b. Using Serious Games a type of video games
developed with non-recreational purposes where
learning is the primary goal.
c. Students building their own games allowing the
programming skills and game design skills.
Producing educational video games, with the quality
of commercial video games requires large budgets.
b. COTS video games have several limitations in their
application in education since the contents are limited
and may not be complete and accurate.
a. Introduces what really matters from world of video
games, increasing the level of engagement of
b. Extract the game elements that make good games
enjoyable and fun to play, adapt them and use those
elements in the teaching processes.
c. Thus, students learn, not by playing specific games
but they learn as if they were playing a game.
F. Gamification in Computer Science Education
Online learning environment (Web 2.0 tools), to
promote student interactions on course-related topics as
well as purely social matters.
a. Enable the students to support each other, socially and
academically (e.g. peer code review, group wikibased exercise) b. Help the students in dealing with difficulties such as
stress and isolation(e.g. self-paced quizzes)
c. Hence, Effective peer collaborative learning.
6) Conclusion & Future Work:
a. Students can perform the activity in school or outside
school since schoooools.com is available everywhere
( On a personal computer, a laptop or a mobile device
like a smartphone or a tablet).
b. With this project it is also possible to test the
platform under different realities in different
Some features that were evaluated negatively were
corrected and several improvements were introduced
in the interface.
Need for further research on its effects and check if
they are better than traditional ones.
The validation of schoooools.com will have an action
research approach involving students, parents and
Data obtained from these experiences could
contribute with empirical evidence about the use of
Learning related features
Peer review, Preparation station, Project repository,
Group based wiki, User profile, Friends, multimedia
content/comments, Groups, A custom-built forum
discussion module, A built-in online chat system.
Participate more in social and learning activities.
Develop a stronger sense of community.
Be more willing to help each other on academic and
Conclusion & Future Work
Addition of gamification features to an online social
network based learning environment better attracts
and engages students in collaborative learning.
Gamification used in education is still in the infant
stage, but has a lot of potential in motivating students
to be more active in participating in online learning
A longer observation time is needed to fully
understand the impact of these gamification features.
G. Gamification in Business / Enterprise
Gamification helps motivate behavior that is beneficial to a business. It can accentuate the user experience with the
business services and build brand loyalty.
1) Customer Oriented Gamification
It is essential that marketers know their customer base very well, and understand what motivates their users.
Loyalty Programs: Loyalty programs are about
keeping your current customers happy and engaged.
It eliminates the need for new customer acquisition.
Loyalty programs help to encourage better
engagement with brand (business). Users earn
rewards by completing tasks that are set by the brand.
Consumers are very influenced by perceptions of
their relative importance to others in a loyalty
Communities: Through gamification, organizations
can improve brand experience by engaging users,
encouraging them to join a community, driving active
participation, sharing with friends outside the
community, and even recruiting friends to join the
Businesses' commonly use Points,
Badges, Leader-boards, and Challenges to motivate
activities within the community.
A sense of
belonging and togetherness makes the members come
2) Employee Oriented Gamification
The goal of employee oriented gamification is to create a
gamified environment that would be taken seriously by
A Role-Motivation-Interaction Framework
facilitates gameful solution.
Role like Manager, employee
Motivation is defined by basic desires of employee, based on the role like desire for Acceptance, Power, Order and Mastery. Game Elements such as 'Token Placement' (Distribute fixed
number of tokens among interest areas) is selected to satisfy the desire for Acceptance and Power, whereas 'Surprise or
Award' support desire for competence and mastery.
Interaction: Employees identify an initiative to express
3) Results of applying Gamification
a. Boost in employee performance
b. Improved employee retention
c. Better Customer relationship
d. Increased stake-holder's engagement
e. Quicker Return on Investment
Teleflora, a flower hand-delivery business. Teleflora‟s
Rewards program gives customers one point for every dollar
spent on the website.
Keas, Employee Engagement Platform. Keas is used by
enterprises to maintain lower group health insurance costs and reduce expenses such as unnecessary sick days.
Step2, makes a variety of children‟s products, encouraging parents to get involved with creating buzz about the brand
using a loyalty program and earning points.
The Email Game, gives users a 3-minute time limit to
respond to emails that must be addressed now and rewards with points and accomplishments which improves productivity.
Samsung Nation, creates user-generated content by
rewarding users for getting engaged with the community,
participating in Q&A discussions with other users, watching
videos, reviewing products, and other activities and users are awarded with badges and progress through levels of
5) Conclusion & Future Work
As more and more enterprises will adopt gamification,
business user expectations will change over time, but there
would always be the need for a strong gamification community to start picking up the pace from internal collaboration and innovation. Gamification Frameworks will play an important
role to offer design models for customer and employee-facing initiatives.
H. Gamification in Society
Gamification can be applied in various sectors of society to achieve intended benefits or satisfaction. A common problem
or task that can be solved by participation of people from
society can be approached with gamification techniques to
involve more people to solve it.
Ref.  talks about using games as a tool to introduce
older people to digital technology. A gameful system is
proposed to facilitate the social interactions between older people and young adults in a community run club. Studies have shown that a very small fraction of digital users, are old age people. Older people have ambivalent attitudes toward new
technologies due to limited experience and it's less utility in their everyday life.
1) Gameful Strategy to motivate older generation to use
Members of GoodGym club (runners) are appointed to
regularly visit isolated older people (coaches) in their
neighborhoods; checking on their wellbeing, encouraging
social interaction, delivering newspapers and doing other
helpful jobs. The relationship between the running group‟s member and the older people (coaches) provides a platform for building a gaming experience within the community. The
challenge is that the coaches in general do not use digital
The runners track their running times of their weekly visits to their coaches. They typically have smart-phones and are
engaged in social networks. As runners, they have an interest in improving their running times and desire to compare their
progress with the other runners. Further, a digital utility is developed for the coaches to help them communicate with their runners, provide encouragement and the runners can share their progress, encourage further adoption of digital technology.
2) Other Examples
OPower works to solve energy consumption problems by
utilizing gamification to encourage people to use less energy. OPower works with utility companies to provide households
with data on how much energy they are consuming, how they
match up with neighbors, and if they are close to any new
RecycleBank encourages people to recycle more and
reduce landfill trash by awarding points for recycling, saving energy, and answering sustainability quizzes and pledges.
Points are redeemable for actual goods.
CrowdRise is a platform that gamifies charity. People
create their pages and profiles, and they can accumulate points and match up against others on a leaderboard based on how
much they can fund-raise.
Gamification in Social Networking
With the growth of Online Social Networking Services
(OSNS), it has been observed that users are finding ways to
utilize features of OSNS in gameful ways to influence the flow of information.
1) Analogy to the Multiplayer Game
Just like there are different types of players in games, there are different types of OSNS users. Multiplayer games can be
seen analogous to a Social Network because both online games and social networks exhibit similar types of user interaction models. A research has classified player of multi-player game into four categories: killers, achievers, socializers, and
explorers on the basis of gamers. (Refer to figure 2)
Killers: Focused on competition, winning and rank,
striving to impact the OSNS. For example, On Twitter users
with “Do I have more followers and retweets than my friend?” or “How can I influence the information culture of a certain OSNS?” mindset would come under this category.
Socializers: Focused on socializing and developing
networks. They are the most influential in driving and
increasing the flow of information. Socializers can affect other users by directing flow of information towards certain areas of their own interest. For example, Owners of a Facebook
community or pages that are created for a specific purpose (say Artist, Band or Public Figure).
Achievers: Focused on status, goals and completion. They
seek to collect points, level up, or other types of quantifiable measurements of “succeeding‟ in an OSNS. For example,
Explorers: Focused on exploring and discovering. They
have the least influence on flow of information compared to
other users. For example, users exploring what a flow such as the Twitter stream offers.
2) How flow of information is affected
Given the diversity of user types, different types of features appeal to different users and affect the flow of information in different ways. Achievers will be appealed more by the
statistical gameplay aspects such as progress, experience,
achievements and rewards. Killers will also be attracted by
statistical aspect as they invite competitions. Social media analytics company Klout has been offering to measure this
kind of influence using the Klout score. A user‟s score is indicative of the user‟s network size, degree of participation and impact in an OSNS. OSNS operators typically require
users to create an online identity, filling it with facts and
figures as a means to display their self-perception, or an
alternate version of themselves as part of their online identity. User profiles can be thought of as a hub that initiates a flow of information from various resource nodes such as page “likes”, friends, places of employment and so forth, to allow users to “traverse the network graph”. These types of motivators result in a sociographical reward to further the flow of information about an interest, topic, product or service.
Twitter is an OSNS that utilizes statistics via a user's
tweets, followers and followees. Users can maximize what they desire, by increasing their tweets, utilizing hashtags and
receiving mentions and retweets.
LinkedIn and GameSpot have implemented reward
systems to encourage users to contribute more information to their profiles. As a result of this "gamified design", LinkedIn saw a rise in profile completions.
Facebook profile of a user reveals of what a user likes/do
not like, where they have been and what they have been up to. User can maximize social influence by liking the activities, pages, by sharing information and by expressing thoughts
4) Conclusion & Future Work
Gamification has the potential to change the way
information is created, exchanged and distributed.
Incorporating game elements in an OSNS facilitates the flow of information. The study of flow of information in a social
network can offer insights into designing and developing
services to engage more users and encourage productivity and product interest, from which businesses and influencer can
benefit. Social Networks are becoming more connected and
number of users is increasing exponentially. Having said that, gamification in social network can pave a way for strategic
marketing. Users can benefit from speedy transfer of
information on social network, such as in case of emergencies. Study of users' reaction on a topic would help in various social mechanism designs.
CHALLENGES IN GAMIFICATION
Gamification is not all about giving out badges and points
to incentivize behavior, but needs to apply game thinking to encourage and motivate for further activities. Pointsification is the implementation of scoring systems into real life, which
might lead to a fatigue of collecting badges, points and trophies for its own sake. The conflation of game elements neither
reflects the essence of games nor real life. Instead, game
systems need to offer meaningful choices, which involve loss and gain that are the source of the real game experience driven by mastery, learning and challenges. Besides, pointsification may cause an „over justification‟ effect for voluntary activities. The implementation of gamification into a healthy business
system, named as exploitation-ware, might also harm the
system and lead to a polar-effect.
The over enthusiasm of business decision makers following
a trend that promises easy, cheap and replicable success and is therefore tempting but bears risks triggering annoyance among customers and employees. The implementation of scoring
systems will not allow the user to fully understand the meaning and motive behind, but instead be perceived as a control and monitor tool. Designing meaningful gamified systems is
challenging and needs the know-how of game designers to
decide which activities are suitable for being „gamified‟. Thus, the prerequisite of implementing gamified system is a
transparent communication of the purpose to support a
voluntary participation of players.
Fig.1. Google Trends for “gamification” word
Fig.2. Multiplayer Games User Types
2) Boston Heart Diagnostics
Voluntary In Action
1) American Airlines
2) Turkish Airlines
4) Check Points
5) Starwood SPG program
6) Marriott My Hotel
3) Procter & Gamble
1) Progress bar, Points,
2) Physical Rewards,
3) Virtual Currency,
4) Virtual Currency,
5) Point System,
6) Point System,
Levels, Virtual Goods
with real world offers
points, badges, ranking
• Driven by internal and
external motivation factors and
• Achieve rewards and other
accolades for their efforts.
• Perceive themselves as a part
of a group.
• Enjoy support and positive
reinforcement from others.
• Feel connected.
• Autonomy-the urge to direct
our own lives.
• Mastery -the desire to
improve at something
• Purpose- the yearning to act
in the service of something
larger than ourselves.
• Progress-the desire to see
results in the direction of
mastery and greater purpose.
• Social Interaction
• Discovery- Finding and
knowing things that most other
players don‟t know about.
• Socializing- Having an
interest in helping and chatting
with other players
• Teamwork- Deriving
satisfaction from being part of
a group effort
Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Motivation • Status
For Technicians :
• Monetary reward
• aim to perform challenges
• Intrinsic motivation
• Creativity enhanced
• Feedback scores
For IT Industry :
• Better engagement of
2) World of Warcraft
4) Global Conflicts4 series
4) The Email Game
5) Samsung Nation
goods, virtual currency,
employees to perform better
• “Open innovation” leads to
better and more creative results
• Popularity and name
For Teachers :
• Popularity of video games
• Use of electronic games is
natural for future generation
• Potential of video games in
For students :
• Peer collaborative learning
• Helps in overcoming stress
• To develop a stronger sense
• Social activity related features
• Reputation & achievement
• Participation points earned
are linked to promotion level
•Sense of belonging and
togetherness within a
•Perceptions of their relative
importance to others.
•More personalized experience.
Progress levels, Klout
1) GoodGym Gameplay
Badges, points, levels,
For students :
• Awards and achievement
• Social recognition
• Freedom to show creativity
•Games are known to be related
with enjoyment and pleasure
rather than studies.
•Basic desire for power and
•Desire for competence,
mastery, and acceptance
enhances feeling of belonging
in the organization.
•Competition: more followers
and retweets than my friend.
•Desire to influence the
information culture of a certain
•Increasing interaction with
more and more people.
measurements of “succeeding‟.
•Sense of responsibility
•Desire to improve social status
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