The topic I choose to cover for the Future of Eugenics is Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). PGD is and will be used in the future of Eugenics to create almost the “fittest” or perfect baby before they are even born. The structure of DNA was discovered in the 1950s, and since then several of genes has been identified as well as genetic disorders, which lead us to PGD. “Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is a technique used to identify genetic defects in embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) before pregnancy” (Dayal 1).
The creation of PGD was developed first by Edwards and Gardner, who successfully performed the first known embryo on rabbit embryos in 1968 (Dayal 1). “In Humans, PGD was developed in the United Kingdom in the mid 1980s as an alternative to current prenatal diagnoses” (Dayal 1). PGD was first reported in 1990. Since then over 15,000 PGD cycles have been reported since 2006 and are available for most known genetic mutation, but the technique still remains fairly new (Dayal 1). PGD is recommended for couples that are at risk of transmitting a known genetic abnormality to their children. “Only healthy and normal embryos are transferred into the mother’s uterus, thus diminishing the risk of inheriting a genetic abnormality and late pregnancy termination” (Dayal 2). Indications or primary candidates for PGD include chromosomal disorders, gender determination for severe X-linked diseases, severe monogenic diseases, recurrent pregnancy loss, advanced maternal age, couples with >3 IVF failures, epididymal or testicular sperm aspiration with >1 IVF failures (Lavy 4). PGD requires special skills to perform. However, the process starts with Ovarian Stimulation IVF, and then on day 3 there is blastomere biopsy. After that there is a genetic analysis, following the transfer of the unaffected embryo and then the outcome of the chromosomally normal baby (Lavy 6).
There are many advantages and disadvantages when it...
Cited: Bashford, Alison, and Philippa Levine. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2012. Print.
Dayal, Molina B. "Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis ." Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. N.p., 4 Nov. 2013. Web. 28 Nov. 2013. .
Lavy, Gad. “New England Fertility Institute: Lifeline Cryogenics” Print.
“The History of Eugenics and the New Eugenics :The ethics of BioTechnology” Print.
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