Fundamentals of Hardware and Software

Topics: Computer, Personal computer, Central processing unit Pages: 7 (1460 words) Published: February 24, 2013
Fundamentals of Hardware and Software

Obj 1: Introduction to Information Technology
* Computer Studies Computer Studies deals with the features of computers, and the ways and methods of using the computer, so as to provide a basis for understanding the impact of computers on individuals, organizations and our society.

* Information Technology This is the technology, which supports activities involving the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information, together with their related methods, management and applications. Information Technology may also be described as the integration of computing technologies and information processing.

* A Computer System in its broadest sense is made up of two main components – HARDWARE and SOFTWARE.

* Hardware These are the physical components of a computer system that may be seen and touched. Examples of computer hardware are Mouse, Keyboard, Scanner, Printer, Monitor, Scanner, Plotter, etc.

* Software A set of instructions written in the language, which the computer understands is called a program. Software may be described as programs on the computer, which is used by the user to do a specific task/job. Software may be described as the set of instructions that tells the computer what to do. Some examples of computer software are Corel Word Perfect, Lotus 1-2-3, Windows '95 and '98, Solitaire, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office - Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel and Microsoft PowerPoint, ACCPAC, etc.

* A Computer is an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its memory. It can:
* Accept data (input)
* Manipulate data (processing)
* Produce results from the processing (output)
* Store the data and results for future use (storage)

* Data is a raw unprocessed fact that has no meaning in its own state of existence. * Information is data that has been given meaning.

There are two basic types of Computers defined by the type of data the machine will accommodate: * Analog Computer
* Digital Computer

* Analog Computer

These machines accept and processes analog data. This is represented by a physical quantity that is considered to be a continuous variable and has a magnitude directly proportional to the data or suitable function of the data.

A continuous data variable is a data set related to a scale of measurements where one can always define an additional data point between any two adjacent data points. Examples of analog computers are

* Kitchen Scale
* Thermometer

* Digital Computer These are also known as modern computers, that is all the information computers, that is all the information is stored as strings of zeros and ones Digital is said to be discrete i.e. the data is countable and the information is represented by a series of numbers. Examples: There are 10 cars in the parking lot.

Basic Operation of the Computer System


Block Diagram of the Computer System
Backing Storage


Data Information

Obj 2: Physical Components of a Computer
* Hardware This is the name given to the physical parts of a computer. There are 5 general categories.

* Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The CPU is the brain of the computer and it controls how the rest of the computer operates. The components of the CPU are:

* Control Unit (CU)
The CU carries out instructions in the software and directs the flow of data through the computer. Its functions include:
1. It controls the fetching of instruction from memory.
2. Decodes the instructions
3. Executes the decoded instructions
4. Controls the input and output devices
5. Controls the passing of...
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