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Topics: Carbon dioxide, PH, Water Pages: 41 (8428 words) Published: October 17, 2013


Chemistry
Introduction

Objective:
The goal of the chemistry unit is to teach students how to identify when a chemical reaction has occurred. The students should be able to watch a process and determine if a chemical reaction has occurred. They will see (and usually perform) reactions demonstrating every type of chemical change.

Background:
Chemistry is the study of chemical reactions as a result of molecular interaction. There are four ways to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

Heat is transferred:
The chemicals will change temperature when a reaction occurs. If the chemicals feel warmer then the reaction is exothermic, heat is going out of the system. If the chemicals feel colder then the reaction is endothermic, heat is going into the system. Most spontaneous reactions are exothermic, but the reaction between Epsom salts and water is a simple endothermic reaction. Combustion is an exothermic reaction that usually requires some activation energy, such as lighting it with a match.

A gas is released:
These are usually visible reactions because they will start to bubble. A safe and simple example of this is the reaction between baking soda and vinegar. These two chemicals (sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid) react and release carbon dioxide.

A color change occurs:
Combining chemicals can change the pigmentation that gives the chemicals color. A change in the pigments will cause the light to reflect differently and a color change to occur. Testing for pH is an example of a color changing reaction. The pH of the solution will change the pigment on the litmus paper or in the indicator. Acids and bases change the pigments in different ways, which causes the indicator to change different colors depending on the pH.

A precipitate is formed:
A chemical reaction has occurred if two liquids are poured together and a solid (called a precipitate) is formed. This happens when the two chemicals react to form something that is not soluble in water. A common example of this is curdling milk. Adding vinegar to milk causes it to curdle and form a precipitate.

Chemistry
State Standards and Benchmarks
Oregon Standards for 3rd and 5th grade

Science – Scientific Inquiry
Oregon Common Curriculum Goals:
1. Understand chemical and physical changes.
2. Formulate and express scientific questions or hypotheses to be investigated

Benchmarks:
1. (Grade 3) Describe changes that occur in matter.
(Grade 5) Describe the ability of matter to change state by heating and cooling. 2. (Grade 3) Make observations. Based on these observations, ask questions or form hypotheses, which can be explored through simple investigations. (Grade 5) Make observations. Ask questions or form hypotheses based on those observations, which can be explored through scientific investigations.

Science- Physical Science
Oregon Common Curriculum Goals:
1. Understand structure and properties of matter.

Benchmarks:
1. Grade 3: Describe objects according to their physical properties. Grade 5: Identify substances, as they exist in different states of matter.

Chemistry
Vocabulary

Acetic acid
Acetic Acid
Acidic (Acid)
Alkaline (Base)
Ammonia
Calcium Chloride
Capillary action
Celsius
Chemical Reaction
Chromatography
CO2 –Carbon Dioxide
Color change
Combustible
Control
Copper Sulfate
Crystal
Dissolve
Effervescent
Endothermic
Evaporate
Exothermic
Fahrenheit
Gas
Hypothesis
Incandescence
Iron hexacyanoferrate
Laundry Bluing
Liquid
Liquid Nitrogen
Lithium Chloride
Magnesium Sulfate
Molecules
Neutralization
Nucleation Site
pH scale
Pigment
Precipitate
Prediction
Reaction
Reaction Rate
Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium Borate (Borax)
Sodium Chloride
Solubility
Solution
Solvent
Strontium Chloride
Sublimate
Substrate
Surface Area
Surface Tension
Temperature

Chemistry
Lesson Index

Lesson:
Chemical Reactions
Crystal Gardens
Dry Ice
Fireworks...
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