Freud and Jung: Early Psychoanalytic Theories
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung were two influential theorists in psychology (Nystul, M., 2005). Freud was considered the father of psychology and believed that human behavior was the result of unconscious conflict deep in the mind of individuals (Nystul, M., 2005). Jung’s theory developed directly out of Freud’s psychoanalytic approach; however he refuted several of Freud’s key points and placed an even greater emphasis on the unconscious. Freud and Jung were the key figures of the psychoanalytic approach to psychology; however their theories differed on several key points (Nystul, M., 2005). Freud’s psychoanalytic theory was the seed for many subsequent theorists’ work. His main assertion was that human behavior and personality derived from the unconscious conflict that arose in individuals’ unconscious (Fayek, 2005). He postulated that the unconscious was a combination of the id, which was the primal drive for all human needs (e.g., sex, hunger), the superego, which could be likened to the internalization of societal values and standards (e.g., the conscience), and the moderating ego that was the rational part of thought that controlled the impulses of the id and superego. Anxiety arose when individuals were confronted with fears of danger within reality (Shill, 2004). Neurotic anxiety occurred when individuals were confronted with dangers that arose in childhood, and can be connected to his five stages of psychosexual development, where personality developed. The five stages of psychosexual development were connected to erogenous zones that children were fixated on until their needs were met and were able to move on developmentally. The five stages include oral, anal, phallic, and genital stages of development. The id relied on the stimulation of these zones until the child would move into the next developmental stage. If an individual were unable to move into the next stage, then they would fixate into that...
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