1.1 EXPLAIN THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ONE MAJOR THERAPEUTIC MODEL, INCLUDING THE PEOPLE INFLUENTIAL IN ITS DEVELOPMENT.
Sigmund Freud, 1856-1939 was an Austrian doctor, he was the eldest of his parent’s eight children. Freud founded psychoanalysis, the method of treatment to treat mental and nervous disorders, which is not the same as psychodynamic counselling today.
Freud studied medicine at the university of Vienna, where he was influenced by one of his teachers Ernst Brucke, Ernst Brucke believed in the mechanistic approach seeing a person as a machine, determined by physical or chemical causes. Freud moved into neurophysiology (the nervous system and how it functions), where he was influenced by another tutor, Theodor Meynert who studied in neurology and neuropathology (study of diseases in the nervous system).
Freud’s work firstly looked at the causes and treatment of neurosis (minor nervous or mental disorder), in time he expanded his theories and took an interest in the way the human psyche develops from birth onwards. Freud's work mainly concerns the unconscious; Freud became interested in the unconscious mind whilst working with Joseph Breuer in Vienna.
Freud used hypnosis that was commonly used at that time, he later believed that talking was just as effective as hypnosis for his patients understanding of themselves. Freud also believed that dreams and symbols play a significant part in the unconscious; through analysing his patient’s dreams Freud hoped he would help find a way into accessing what lay in the unconscious mind of his patients.
In 1896, Freud’s father passed away, Freud struggled to come to terms with the loss of his father, this threw him into a period of self-analysis, he begun to realise that he had repressed feelings of rage and resentment towards his father, which lead Freud into examining his own childhood memories and dreams. Freud admitted as a little boy he had fallen in love with his mother and was jealous of his father’s relationship with her. Freud became aware that the unconscious childhood memories often became apparent in adult dreams and behaviour.
The people influential in Freud's approach were
CARL JUNG-Jung followed Freud in his ideas until eventually Jung doubted Freud’s ideas of the sexual nature and drives. Jung begun to develop new theories of his own, the theory is called “Analytical Psychology” his core concepts being similar to those of Freud's being
THE EGO- Centre of consciousness where thoughts and feelings are kept.
THE PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS-different in each individual, consisting of material that was conscious, and now repressed.
THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS- the archetypes, the self (the complete psyche of the individual) the shadow (unconscious mind of repressed material), the animus/anima (female/male) being the true inner self as opposed to the outer traits.
PERSONALITY TYPES- Jung was well known for discovering the personality types of introvert and extrovert.
He also developed the psychological functions of the rational thinking and irrational, these ideas are used today in the Myres-Briggs Type Indicator a system for understanding personality types.
Others include Alfred Adler, Melanie Klein, John Bowlby, they were all keen to develop their own theories. There were many disagreements with Freud over his theories and his belief in that we have inner motives for our behaviour, these being mainly sexual.
“The psychodynamic approach has direct links with Freudian psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud's theories have been developed, modified and adapted by different strands of psychodynamic theorists. Many of Freud’s original concepts remain central to this approach” ( Aileen Milne 2007, P114) 1.2 EXPLAIN THE PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS OF THE CHOSEN MODEL.
The philosophical basis of the chosen model is that Freud believed a client’s problems were hidden in part of the mind, the unconscious, the part where unpleasant childhood...
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