French notes

Topics: French language, Grammatical number, Grammatical gender Pages: 22 (2602 words) Published: October 13, 2013
The French Alphabet
A
Ah
father
B
Bay
bathe
C
Say
Set
D
Day
Dare
E
Uh
Earn
F
Eff
Effort
G
Zhay
Corsage (1)
H
Ahsh
Wash
I
Ee
Equator
J
Zhee
Corsage (1)
K
Kah
Cut
L
El
Elephant
M
Em
Emerald
N
En
Energy
O
Oh
Old
P
Pay
Pair
Q
Kuu
(2)
R
Ehrr
Err
S
Ess
Essence
T
Tay
Tip
U
Ew
(3)
V
Veh
Very
W
Doobla-vay
(4)
X
Eeks
(5)
Y
ee-grek
(6)
z
Zed

1. French g=English j, French j=English g, French I=English E 2. Vowel following Q=Mouth in the “ee” formation, say “oo” 3. This is the vowel pronounced when saying the name of the letter Q 4. Rare in French words, can sound like English W or English V 5. X can be French Z, English X, or the English S

6. Y is usually pronounced like the French I
French Accents
L’accent aigu:
The aigu is placed over the letter “e” like this: é
The “é” sounds like the “a” in babe.
“É” is an ay sound stopped before its completion—as though someone did not let you finish your word! The French “–er” makes the same sound as the “é.” L’accent grave:
Found on the letters “a” and “e”
Looks like: “à” and “è”
The letter à sounds like the “a” in the English word “papa” The letter è sounds like the short “e” in the English word let L’accent circonflexe:
Looks like a hat on top of all the vowels
It puts an extra stress on the vowel so that you hold it a little longer â = the aa sound like father
ê = the eh sound like met
î = the ee sound like meet
ô = the oh sound like hole
û = the uu sound like super
La cédille:
Cédille literally means “little zed” or “little z”
Attached to the bottom of the “c” like this: ç
Makes the C sound like an S
Tréma
Indicates two vowels written together should be pronounced separately (le Noël – Christmas (no-el) and haïr – to hate (ha-eer) are examples)

Liaison and Elision
La Liaison
Used to help French pronunciation flow more easily
Occurs when the final consonant sound of a word is connected to the first vowel or silent h of the following word. L’Elision
Used for the same reason that a liaison is used: to help the flow of a sentence when a word begins with a vowel Only used when the articles “le” and “la” precede a noun that begins with a vowel or a silent “h” Elisions are obligatory in French: example one must say and write “l’arbre” (the tree) not “le arbre”

“Chien” means “dog” in French
Vowels before “M” and “N”
In the following clusters you begin to pronounce the last letter (the “n” or “m”) but you do not finish the sound. The vowel that comes before the “n” or the “m” is said to be “nasalized.” an – “on” without finishing the n sound – ahn

ain, aim—the en sound in “pan” without finishing the n sound en – same sound as an – ahn
ein, eim—like the “an” sound in “and” without finishing the n or even starting the d in – the en sound in “pen” without finishing the n sound on – “on” with a closed mouth (into a little circle) and do not finish the n sound - ohn un – same as in - uhn

am – same as an, except start an “m”
em – same as am - ahm
im – same as in except with an “m” sound instead of an “n” sound - ihm om – same as on except with an “m” instead of an “n” sound - ohm um – same as im - ihm

Basic Conversation Dialogue
Salut!
Hello! (informal)
Bonjour.
Good morning/Hello.
Bonsoir.
Good evening.
Bonne nuit.
Good night.
Bonne journée.
Have a good day.
Je m’appelle _____ .
My name is ______.
Comment vous appelez-vous?
What is your name? (formal/plural greeting)
Comment t’appelles-tu?
What is your name? (informal greeting)
Enchanté(e)*
A Pleasure
À tout à l’heure!
Until later!
À bientôt!
See you later!
Au revoir.
Goodbye
Merci.
Thank You.
*Second e only used when female is speaking
comment ça va?
How’s it going? (informal)
ça va?
How’s it going? (very inf.)
ça va.
I’m good.
et toi?
And you?
pas mal
Not bad
Bien
Well
à tout à l’heure
See you soon
Ciao
Bye
de rien
You’re welcome...
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