At this paper I will try to clarify cultural differences between Turkey and France in terms of: * Language
* Human Relationships
First of all I would like to start with the definition of culture.
Definition of culture
Culture has many definitions, and it affects everything people do in their society because of their ideas, values, attitudes, and normative or expected patterns of behaviour. Culture is not genetically inherited, and cannot exist on its own, but is always shared by members of a society (Hall 1976, p. 16). Hofstede (1980, pp. 21-23) defines culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group from another”, which is passed from generation to generation, it is changing all the time because each generation adds something of its own before passing it on. It is usual that one’s culture is taken for granted and assumed to be correct because it is the only one, or at least the first, to be learned.
Culture is a complex concept, and no single definition of it has achieved consensus in the literature. So, out of the many possible definitions examined, the following definition guides this study: culture is a set of shared and enduring meaning, values, and beliefs that characterize national, ethnic, or other groups and orient their behaviour (Mulholland 1991).
Language is one of the key elements of a national culture, diversity of the languages in a country shows the cultural richness and different ethnic origins. As an example in Turkey Turkish is the official language of the country, however there are three more languages which have more than 15% of the population as native speakers. These languages takes place in different areas of Turkey, at the southeast of Turkey we have Kurdish citizens and Araps, Kurdish and Arabic is like the second official language at that area. At the north of Turkey we have people from two other ethnic origins, Laz people and Armenian.
French government and citizens is very strict and firm about protecting their language as an example at the motion pictures, people watch the movies after doubling. France also have many regional languages, such as Breton and Alsatian. At the southwest of France people speak a language which is completely unrelated to French which is Basque Language.
In France freedom of thought and of religions is protected by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 1789. Large majority of the French citizens are Roman Catholics with 61%, 21% as Atheists, 4% as Muslims, 3%Protestans, Buddhists and Jews are 1%.
Turkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. In Turkey 99% of the citizens are Muslims, other religions are Christian and its denominations.
In Turkey family and the relations with them are the key elements of our culture. Household members eat together and share income expenses, fathers support their children’s living expenses and the majority of the children do not need study before finishing their education. Although father is the head of the family, household is usually mother-centered, they manage and direct internal affairs of the home and men provides the income. In recent years these culture is in a change, with the new laws men and women have the equal rights about private property and inheritance, with the increasing numbers of the educated women their rights are also improving.
Marriage and creating a family idea seems to be decreasing in France, one out of three marriages are end up separation. At the last years people in France prefers living together rather than marrying, new law which accepted at the last couple years, it gives the civil rights to the couples who live together but not married.
Cultural differences changes the viewpoint to...
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