1) Michel Foucault (Post-structuralism)
2) Pierre Bourdieu (Structuralism)
Assessment Task: A 3500 word assignment which meets learning outcomes: 1 & 3.
Number of Words: 3816/3500.
In sociology, there has been debate into how identity is constructed, with major differences into how identity is constructed depending upon on which epistemological position is taken by sociologist of whether the social structure or the agency which is the most influential in society and whether or not either should or can be studied in order to study society due to its limitations either on whether it can be studied or not or whether or not it would be useful to study it exclusively.
In the investigation of identity, it is important to understand that there is great knowledge offered from both sociology as well as social psychology in understanding identity. However, for the purposes of this essay, the focus will be on the sociological explanations of identity, with focus on the workings of Erving Goffman on symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology as well as on Michel Foucault on the his version or his contributions to post-structuralism or social constructionism.
Identity is defined as being the categorisations made by ourselves of who we are as well as by others in society, categorising on who we are. Many forms of groups of identities in society of which most if not but all of us belong to are age, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, social class, as well as many others. Often, identity is focused upon in times of what is described as identity troubles or identity conflicts (Lawler, 2012); whereby social conflicts such as riots and violent attacks occur between
References: Archer, M. S. (2003). Structure, agency, and the internal conversation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Bourdieu, P Burke, P. J. (2003). Advances in identity theory and research. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Clarke, R Durkheim, E. (1965). The elementary forms of the religious life. New York: Free Press. Foucault, M., & Hurley, R. (1988). The history of sexuality. New York: Vintage Books. Giddens, A. (1976). New rules of sociological method: A positive critique of interpretative sociologies. New York: Basic Books. Giddens, A Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday. Goffman, E Goffman, E. (1977). The arrangement between the sexes. Theory and Society. Gumperz, J Hacking, I. (2004). Between Michel Foucault and Erving Goffman: between discourse in the abstract and face-to-face interaction. Economy and Society, 33(3), 277-302. doi: 10.1080/0308514042000225671 Jenkins, R Katz, A., & Catrow, D. (2007). Don 't say that word!. New York: Margaret K. McElderry Books. Lawler, S Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (2003). Handbook of self and identity. New York: Guilford Press. Oakley, A O 'Reilly, A. (2008). Feminist mothering. Albany: State University of New York Press. Weinreich, P., & Saunderson, W Woodward, K., & Open University (2004). Questioning identity: Gender, class, ethnicity. London: Routledge.