Library research paper Fracking-pros and cons
Fracking has become a hotly debated issue across the United States. Fracking industry leaders highlight the benefits of Fracking. Health officials are concerned with the lack of long term use of chemicals in Fracking. Environmental groups protest the lack of regulations and the effects Fracking will have on the environment. Fracking, or Hydraulic fracturing is the process of breaking up shale underneath the earth’s surface to extract natural gas supplies. A series of holes are drilled and chemicals are pumped in to fracture the pockets of gas within the shale, releasing the gas to the surface. The U.S Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing Of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades. The widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices and reduce and possibly replace the use of coal for fuel.(Allen, 2014)” Hydraulic Fracturing makes it possible to produce oil and natural gas in places where conventional technologies are ineffective. Fracking has unlocked new supplies of oil and clean-burning natural gas from dense deposits of shale supplies that increase our country’s energy security and improve our ability to generate electricity, heat homes and power vehicles for generations to come.”(Kargbo, Wilhelm, & Campbell, 2010) Health officials claim, ”environmental exposures include outdoor air pollutants (ie, volatile organic compounds, tropospheric ozone, and diesel particulate matter) and pollutants (ie, benzene, hydrocarbons, endocrine- Disrupting chemicals, and heavy metals) in both ground and surface water.(Kovats, 2014) Known occupational health hazards include, airborne silica exposure at the well pad. “ Toxicological data for the chemicals injected into wells (so-called frac fluid) indicate that many of them have known adverse effects...
References: Allen, D. T. (2014). Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use. Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 5(1)
Kargbo, D. M., Wilhelm, R. G., & Campbell, D. J. (2010). Natural gas plays in the marcellus shale: Challenges and potential opportunities. Environmental Science & Technology, 44(15), 5679-5684. doi:10.1021/es903811p [doi]
Kassotis, C. D., Tillitt, D. E., Davis, J. W., Hormann, A. M., & Nagel, S. C. (2014). Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and surface and ground water in a drilling-dense region. Endocrinology, 155(3), 897-907. doi:10.1210/en.2013-1697 [doi]
Kovats, S. (2014). The health implications of fracking. Lancet (London, England), 383(9919), 757-758.
Pearce, W., Holmberg, K., Hellsten, I., & Nerlich, B. (2014). Climate change on twitter: Topics, communities and conversations about the 2013 IPCC working group 1 report. PloS One, 9(4), e94785. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094785 [doi]
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