Italian Futurism and “the fourth dimension”
Author: Linda Dalrymple Henderson
During the early twentieth century many artists, such as Picasso, Duchamp, Kupka, Boccioni and etc. have interested in a high, unseen dimension of space, which might hold reality truer than that of visual perception. This concept known as “the fourth dimension.” This article discusses the link between Italian futurism and the concept of the fourth dimension. Philosophical idealism which dominated the era, such as applications of spatial fourth dimension, hyperspace philosophy, cubists' pure geometrical method and the Dynamic interpretation of the fourth dimension. The author, Linda D. Henderson explains Charles H. Hinton's theoretical writing on the “fourth dimension”. Hinton believed that the hypercube could be traced by the motion of the three dimensional into a new fourth dimensional direction just as a cube can be generated by the motion of a two-dimensional plane through a third dimension. This concept of Hinton gives the viewers difficulty to visualize the four dimensional appearance. However in the first half of nineteenth century, the geometries that has more than three dimensional is known as n-dimensional geometry. These concept has been developed and applied to the works of art, such as Picasso's cubism, Portrait of Ambroise Vollar and E. Jouffret, Perspective Cavaliere, both images avoid a traditional three-dimensional reading of objects and space. It shows multiple viewpoints of the object in order to produce a truer image. Also the fourth dimension served for the Cubist painter's freedom to distort or deform. In contrast with the earlier Cubist artists, The author introduces us to the Futurist painter and sculptor, like Umberto Boccioni. Boccioni interested in Dynamic Continuity of a unique form rather than generating fourth-dimensional from by the motion of three-dimensional form through the space. His approach was...
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