Four styles of Roman wall painting: Incrustation style; Architectural style; Ornate style; and Intricate style

Powerful Essays
FOUR STYLES OF ROMAN WALL PAINTING

The wall paintings evolved from around 2nd BC. Romans created these extravaganza works to emphasise their wealth. The evidence for the techniques used is described by Vitruvius ' in _De Architectura._ He noted that wall paintings were interior wall designs as frescoes, which were executed using damp plaster (lime and sand mixed together). There must have been at least several layers of this plaster, where the top layers were burnished with marble powder to make the surface smooth and glittering. Then on this medium the pigments of primary colours were applied quickly while it was still wet. The colour black was drawn from carbon of burned brushwood; yellow was obtained from mines or from heated white led; baked mixture of sand and copper produced colour blue; red was obtained from red ochre or cinnabar; and the most precious colour purple was obtained from sea whelks. The essential tools used for plastering the walls were wooden float and trowel blades. Many wall paintings are very well preserved because as plaster dries, water evaporates and plaster absorbs carbonic acid gas (from air) which forms a protective skin of crystalline carbonate of lime. The roman wall paintings were inspired by Greek and Hellenistic paintings and architecture.�

The wall paintings were classified into four 'styles ' by German archaeologist August Mau (1840-1909). He did not consider individual elements of paintings but rather focused on decorative composition and patterns and how they might be grouped into certain period 'styles '. So these styles marked the shifting point in the chronology of painting from 2nd century BC to the final eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Pompeii in 79 CE as there are the most wall paintings that have survived. The 'styles ' were identified as follows: the 1st 'style ' is called Incrustation style (2nd - 1st BC); the 2nd was Architectural style (c. 100- 15 BC); the 3rd was Ornate style (c.20 BC - c.20 AD); and the 4th



Bibliography: Ramage, Nancy & Ramage, Andrew _Roman Art: the Cambridge Illustrated History_ Cambridge University Press, 1991 pp.55-65 (Wall Paintings) Steward, Peter _Roman Art_ Greece & Rome: New Surveys in the Classics No. 34; Oxford University Press, 2004 pp. 74-92 Strong, Donald _Roman Art_ revised by Roger Ling, 2nd edition, 1988; pp. 63-74 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompeian_Styles Department of Greek and Roman Art. "Roman Painting". In _Timeline of Art History_. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ropt/hd_ropt.htm (October 2004) � � HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresco" ��http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresco� ; � HYPERLINK "http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ropt/hd_ropt.htm" ��http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ropt/hd_ropt.htm� � Steward Roman Art pp. 74-76 (Pompeii and Paintings) � Strong Roman Art pp.65-68; � HYPERLINK "http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ropt/hd_ropt.htm" ��http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ropt/hd_ropt.htm� � � HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompeian_Styles" ��http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompeian_Styles� � Steward Roman Art pp.80-82 ( the Third and Fourth styles); � HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompeian_Styles" ��http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompeian_Styles�

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Better Essays

    A. Mau, a German scholar, established four distinct styles of Roman wall painting at the sites of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Boscoreal, and other smaller sites covered with ash from the volcanic eruption at Mount Vesuvius. The styles begin with one direction, shift completely, and end on a more combined technique. Style I, known as incrustation, began approximately during the second century b.c. This style features the strong influence of the Hellenistic Greek period in its surface decoration. At…

    • 2719 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    painting style

    • 835 Words
    • 4 Pages

    used to establish tonal values in fresco painting quickly, creating a soft greenish-gray for the shadows of flesh tones. Architectural details in frescoes were often left in the pure Verdaccio coloring, hence we are able to still see evidence of it today in works such as Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel. What does Verdaccio have to do with modern oil painting? As any artist can tell you, achieving realistic flesh tones is one of the hardest aspects of painting in color. But even early tempera painters…

    • 835 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    Painting Styles

    • 721 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Painting Styles ART 101 April 1, 2012 Painting Styles Neoclassic Art, Impressionist Artworks and Abstract Expressionism are very identifiable by their form, painting style and the era they speak of. All three have some comparisons and some very evident contrasts. The Neoclassic era of art reflected resurgence in the interest of the Greek and Roman Eras. People of this time were interested in seeing woman as more upstanding. They were also going back to a high moral tone, recognizing…

    • 721 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Painting Styles

    • 813 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Painting Styles Sharon Spurling ART101 November 7, 2010 Caleb Kromer Throughout the history of art, there are many eras that helped to create many different pieces of art. In these eras, styles of painting changed and many of the different painting styles contrasted one another. Painting styles help to give a sense of the culture and history. Three of these eras: Neoclassicism, Impressionism, and Abstract Expressionism are just a few that reflected the differences in the painting styles…

    • 813 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    painting styles

    • 572 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Week 5 Assignment – Painting Styles Leanne Diliberto Art/101 2/2/2014 Lynn Wocell Painting Styles Neoclassicism, Impressionism and Abstract Expression all have their own style. Each is from a different era and reflect on different subjects. Neoclassicism was part of the European art movement during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The inspiration for this movement comes from thr classical art and culture of ancient Greece or ancient Rome. Neoclassic Artwork…

    • 572 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Renewal by Andersen of New Jersey & New York Metro offers replacement window styles for every architectural style in our area. Whether you have one of the very popular colonial homes, a modern condominium in the city or a designated historical dwelling, we can help you update your home with energy-efficient Energy Star labeled fixtures. Cape style homes are prevalent in America’s Northeast, and a good number occupy both historic and modern New Jersey neighborhoods. Originally intended to offer the…

    • 750 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Painting Styles Essay

    • 525 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Painting Styles Essay Your Name Art 101 Instructor’s Name Date Painting Styles Essay Neoclassical art was created in Greece and Rome. Neoclassical art has little emotion and came after the period with Rococo art and Baroque art. The classical elements of neoclassical art were used in England to vivid ideas and express courage. Neoclassical art fascinated many viewers and offered them new ways of seeing and doing art. There were some very famous people who used this type of art. Two of the…

    • 525 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Art101-Painting Styles

    • 846 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Painting Styles Neoclassicism Neoclassicism was an art movement closely associated with the era beginning from the end of the 17th century through the 18th-century. The Neoclassicism art movement came from a combination of the last half of Baroque art to the burgeoning scientific interest in classical Greek and Roman antiquity (Sayre, 2010). This new found art of Neoclassicism led to the cause in a rapid growth of collections of antiques (Sayre, 2010). In addition, during the Neoclassicism art…

    • 846 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    ART 101 Week 5 Individual Painting Styles Resource: Appendix B Review pp. 504–518 in Ch. 20 & Ch. 21 of A World of Art View the Neoclassic piece The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries by Jacques Louis David, on the National Gallery of Art website, located in Appendix B. To access the piece, do the following: · Type The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries into the Search This Site box. · Click The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries. View…

    • 321 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    10 ~ Explain the differences between cognitive style and learning style. In what ways might the perceptual styles of field-dependence and field-independence influence whether a student processes information at a deep versus a surface level of learning? Krause et al and other texts use the broader term "Cognitive Style" to include "Learning Style" - often they are thought of as the same concept, but they can be differentiated: • Cognitive Style: The characteristic ways of thinking and perceiving…

    • 818 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays