Foundation of Spanish, English, French & Dutch Colonies in North America

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Unit 1: The Foundation of the Spanish, French, Dutch and English Colonies in North America * Initial Contact (Spanish) * The French and Dutch Colonies * The English Colonies

Part I: Initial Contact (Spanish) #1: Who were the earliest inhabitants of the Americas? * About 14,000 years ago (12,000 BCE), people started to migrate across BERINGIA to Americas * By 8,000 BCE, they reached to Tierra del Fuego * 3 waves came from Asia, 1 from Polynesia (to Easter Island) around 300 AD, 1 from Scandinavia (Norsemen) around 900 AD

#2: What are 2 characteristics of Neolithic American culture? * Clovis tip spear and climate change killed off most large animals (woolly mammoths—like Fred Flintstone would eat) * Some Americans converted to agriculture here (the Neolithic Revolution)—this was around 4000-1500 BCE * Was this earlier or later than other places? * Diseases: Eurasians with large population centers (cities) developed immunities; Americans with small population centers (few cities) did not—hence the later demographic catastrophe when the European arrived

#3: Name and describe 3 Major Native American Areas before Columbus * Meso to South America * Aztecs (Tenochtitlan, chinampas, monumental architecture, human sacrifice) * Incas (non-literate, but had decimal system, superior communication system of runners, accounting device called quipu) * American Southwest * Hohokam, Anasazi, Pueblo * Superior irrigation systems; astronomy * North American Mound Builders (Mississippi Valley) * Ohio and Mississippi River regions * Buried their rulers in these mounds, along with followers who would serve him in afterlife

#4: How did Europe compare to the rest of the world around 1400? * 1400: Europe “was at the edge of world commerce, not the center” * China was the

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