Foreign Terrorist Organizations: The Hezbollah

Topics: Hezbollah, Lebanon, Lebanese Civil War Pages: 6 (3623 words) Published: November 2, 2014

Foreign Terrorist Organizations:
The Hezbollah
By Robert Spencer Reed

Robert Spencer Reed
Kris CornelisHistory 240
March 19, 2014
The Hezbollah is a terrorist organization that has been around for about 35 years, and is considered to be a very dangerous group of people by the United States government. The Hezbollah is assumed to have started in 1982 and is led by a man named Hassan Nasrallah. The Hezbollah has also been known to be called the “Party of God.” This group if terrorists believes that they are doing Gods work by trying to liberate Jerusalem and also eliminate the Islam. Originally the Hezbollah was formed to resist the Israeli occupation, “Hezbollah has stated that it would like to create an Iranian-style Islamic republic in Lebanon, including the removal of all secular influences.”[1] In this essay I will be discussing the creation of the Hezbollah and how they have become what they are today. The Hezbollah was originated by the Shia in the Lebanon society, and according to the Central Intelligence Agency the Shia is approximately 41 percent of the Lebanon population. This 41 percent is a good representation of how much support would be available for a new movement. The Shia society would explode leading into the 1960’s and 1970’s and this is when things would start to lead to the creation of the Hezbollah organization. Before the group would start, there would be major political movements in the 1960’s and 70’s. In 1960 Imam Musa Sadr would come to Lebanon to be the leading Shi’ite figure in the city of Tyre. He quickly became the leader and advocate for the Shia people, who at the time were a very poor and disadvantaged group. The Shia at the time had very little political and economic ties throughout Lebanon, but in 1969 Imam Musa Sadr was appointed to the first head of the Supreme Islamic Shi’ite Council which would finally give the Shias some say in government issues. This new power is something that would help the Shias massively moving into the 1970’s. In 1974 Sadr would become the founder of a group called “Movement of the Deprived.” In doing this he was hoping that it would press the issue that the Shias still needed more social and economic help. In the middle of the 1970’s a Lebanese civil war would begin and Sadr would align himself with a group called “Lebanese National Movement,” the alignment of the movements would create an armed wing known as the Afwaj al-Mouqawma Al-Lubnaniyya, better known as Amal. “Although Amal had its genesis in the Movement of the Dispossessed (Harakat al-Mahrumin), founded by the charismatic scholar Musa as-Sadr, when Sadr was abducted it turned briefly to the secular leadership of Husayn Husayni in 1979. Since 1980, Under Berri's leadership, Amal alienated many religious Shias by supporting the Syrian-backed presidency of Elias Sarkis and compromising Sadr's struggle for social and political reforms. The secularization of Amal provided the Najaf deportees with an ideal setting to spread their militant brand of Shia activism.”[2] This Situation would create an identity crisis throughout Lebanon and would become one of the things that would spark the emergence of the Hezbollah. According to Ahmad Nizar Hamzeh in his writing, “In the Path of Hizbullah” he states that there were four major catalysts in the start of the Hezbollah organization. The first catalyst was the identity crisis in Lebanon. Starting in November of 1943 when Lebanon became independent, "the Shiites felt that they were the despised stepchildren of a state governed by a Maronite-Sunni alliance."[3] The second catalyst was the overall structural imbalance in Lebanon. The Shias were an extremely underrepresented group of people in Lebanon because of the National Pact of 1943, which vested how the legislative and executive branches as well as the military could represent each of the country’s 18 sectarian groups. In 1946 the Shia occupied only 3.2 percent of Lebanon’s population, but by 1980 they...

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