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Foreign Policy

By bettyboop04 Jul 10, 2012 12074 Words
The Foreign relations of the Philippines are administered by the President of the Philippines and the nation's Department of Foreign Affairs. A great deal of Filipino international affairs are influenced by the Philippines' ties to its Southeast Asian neighbors, United States, and the Middle East. The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations;[1] it has been an elected member of theSecurity Council[2] and has participated in FAO, International Labor Organization (ILO), UNESCO andWorld Health Organization. Like most nations, the Philippines is a signatory of Interpol. The Philippines is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit, and the Latin Union. It was formerly a member of the now-defunct SEATO. Declaring itself as independent of any major power block of nations, the Philippines is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. Economically, the Philippines is participant in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian Development Bank, the Colombo Plan, Group of 24, G-20, G-77, the World Bank, Next Eleven and the World Trade Organization (WTO). * |

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Foreign policy
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The Philippines (in red) has embassies in various nations (in blue). Philippine foreign policy is based on the advancement of Filipino ideals and values, which include the advancement of democracy and advocacy for human rights worldwide. The nation is currently actively engaging with regional neighbors in Southeast Asia through theAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations (as a founding member) with the intention of strengthening regional harmony, stability, and prosperity. It has been a supporter of East Timor since the latter's independence and has expanded trade links with its traditional allies Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Relations with Vietnam and Cambodia have thawed in the 1990s after their entry into the ASEAN. Ties to the United States have affected Filipino international relations. The Republic of the Philippines considers itself a staunch ally of the United States and has supported many points of American foreign policy. This is evident in the Philippines' participation in the Iraq War and the War on Terror. Speaking to this support, U.S. President George W. Bush praised the Philippines as a bastion of democracy in the East and called the Philippines America's oldest ally in Asia. President Bush's speech on October 18, 2003 was only the second U.S. Presidential address to the Philippine Congress; U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivered the first. While the Philippines' relationship with the United States remains strong, the administration of former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has sought to establish closer ties to its earlier colonizer, Spain. This was inspired by the attendance of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía at the June 12, 1998 celebration honoring the centennial of the Philippines' independence from Spain. President Macapagal-Arroyo made two official visits to Spain during her presidency. The Armed Forces of the Philippines has been a participant in various regional conflicts, including the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Recently, the Philippines sent peacekeeping forces to Iraq, in addition to civilian doctors, nurses and police. However, the Filipino mission was later recalled as collateral for the release of a Filipino hostage. As part of a UN Peacekeeping Operation, Philippine Army General Jaime de los Santos became the first commander of troops responsible for maintaining order in East Timor. The Philippines is in tension with rival international claimants to various land and water territories in the South China Sea. The Philippines is currently in dispute with the People's Republic of China over the Malampaya and Camago gas fields. The two countries are also in dispute over the Scarborough Shoal. Additionally, the Philippines has a disputed claim over the Spratly Islands. Relations with other Asian nations have been strong. Japan, which has been an active donor of aid, has close ties with the country. Relations with China have recently been expanded, especially with regards to the economy. The presence of a large South Korean expatriate community has led to the expansion of relations between the two nations. India has also been an important partner, as have countries outside of Asia such as Australia, Mexico, New Zealand, and Saudi Arabia. n recent years, the Philippines has been distancing itself from the West due to its active role in the Non-aligned Movement and the G-77. This trend is reflected in its recent positions on Kosovo and Israel. -------------------------------------------------

Relations with specific countries and regions
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Australia
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Main article: Australia–Philippines relations
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As concerns over terrorism in South East Asia have grown in recent years, Australia has become the second largest provider of defense training to the Philippines after the United States[citation needed]. In 2003, the governments of Australia and the Philippines signed an MOUpertaining to the combating of international terrorism and transnational crime.[citation needed] Subsequently, in May 2007 on a visit to Australia by President Arroyo, Australia and the Philippines signed a Status of Visiting Forces Agreement.[3] The agreement was signed in Canberra, Australia on 31 May 2007 by Philippine Defense Secretary Hermogenes E. Ebdane, Jr. and his Australian counterpart Defence Minister Brendan Nelson.[4][4] As of December 2010, the Australian government considers the agreement to be "awaiting ratification by the Philippine Senate."[5]

Australia assisted the Philippines and the United States in battles in the Philippines during World War II.

Brazil

On June 2009, The Philippines and Brazil made their pledges as they signed mutual cooperation agreements in the fields of bio-energy and agriculture.[6] The two countries committed themselves to take the necessary steps to implement the signed Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Agriculture and the Memorandum of Understanding on Bioenergy Cooperation.[7] The Philippines and Brazil signed six memoranda of understanding and agreements on the development and production of renewable energy, and agriculture cooperation.[8] It intends to “facilitate technical cooperation... on the production and use of biofuels, particularly ethanol, and promote the expansion of bilateral trade and investment in biofuel.”[9]

Brunei

On April 2009, The Philippines and Brunei signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that seeks to strengthen the bilateral cooperation of the two countries in the fields of agriculture and farm-related trade and investments.[10] The MOU further strengthening bilateral cooperation between the two Southeast Asian countries, particularly in the fields of agriculture and farm-related trade and investments.[11] The two countries have agreed to cooperate in plant science, crops technology, vegetable and fruit preservation, biotechnology, post-harvest technology, livestock, organic agriculture, irrigation and water resources and Halal industry.[12]

Canada
Main article: Canada–Philippines relations

Philippine–Canadian relations officially began in 1972 when the first Canadian mission in 1949 was upgraded to a full embassy. But years before that—in the 1890s, Canadian investments had preceded Canadian diplomacy in Manila.[citation needed] Trade between Manila and Ottawa has grown steadily. The Philippines is Canada’s largest agricultural-food export market in Southeast Asia. The Canadian International Development Agency works actively in the far-flung communities with local governments and nongovernmental organizations, in the areas of agricultural cooperatives, local governance and small-business development. More than 60 percent of theCanadian International Development Agency’s resources targets strife-torn Mindanao to help restore peace and rebuild lives and properties.

Croatia

On June 2009, The Philippines and Croatia concluded two agreements on cooperation in the fields of culture and sports, which paved the way for greater people-to-people exchanges between the two countries. The agreements were a Memorandum of Agreement on Cultural Cooperation, which aims to promote better understanding between the peoples of the two countries and a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Field of Sports.[13]

Denmark
 See Denmark–Philippines relations
[edit]East Timor

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The Philippines was actively involved in the United Nations peacekeeping forces in East Timor during its move towards independence.[citation needed] When several nations recognized East Timor's sovereignty, the Philippines began official diplomatic relations between the two governments with the establishment of an embassy in Dili. The Philippines has pledged increased commerce and trade with East Timor and has also sought to cultivate cultural and educational exchanges. The two nations share a legacy in Asia as being the region's only states with Roman Catholic and other Christian majority populations. Ever since East Timor's independence, the Philippine Military has also supported the Military of East Timor by deploying a number of soldiers to assist in peacekeeping missions and training for the soldiers of the East Timorese army.

European Union

The European Union and the Philippines shares diplomatic, economic, cultural and political relations. The European Union has provided €3 million to the Philippines to fight poverty and €6 million for counter-terrorism against terrorist groups in the Southern Philippines.[citation needed]The European Union is also the third largest trading partner of the Philippines. There are at least 31,961 Europeans (not including Spaniards) living in the Philippines.[citation needed]

France

During the centennial of the French Revolution in 1889, author Jose Rizal sought to organize a conference called the Association Internationale des Philippinistes with Ferdinand Blumentritt as President and Edmond Plauchut as Vice President. The French also permitted Philippine hero[clarification needed] Jose Rizal to live in exile in France where he wrote the books Noli Me Tangereand El Filibusterismo. These books were also inspired by the French Literary giant Alexandre Dumas, père. On June 26, 1947 the Philippines and France signed a Treaty of Amity which established diplomatic relations with the two countries.[14][not in citation given]

French in the Philippines
There are about 700 French citizens living in the Philippines for either education, business, work or other reasons.[citation needed] The French Ministry of Culture is active in promoting French Culture through its school, Alliance Française de Manille's activities. The French Embassy in the Philippines has sponsored fashion shows, film festivals, art exhibits, wine launches and numerous concerts. It is the prime mover of the annual Fete de la Musique in Manila (at one time, one of the top ten festivals in the world)[citation needed]. There is also an Alliance Française de Cebu in Cebu City.

Greece

There is a Philippine embassy in Athens. Greece has an embassy in Manila and an honorary consulate general. There are around 40,000[citation needed] Filipinos living and working in Greece, making them one of the largest foreign communities in Greece. In addition, it is estimated that there are over 22,000[citation needed] Greeks living in the Philippines. Greece and the Republic of the Philippines also share economic and trading relations.

India

Early relations
Indian elements in Philippine culture point to early relations between the two societies. However, some works posit that the influx of Indian cultural elements into the Philippines is understood only in terms of the developments in the intervening regions between these two areas, theMalayan Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago, where there was an intensified process of Indianization from the 2nd through the late 14th centuries A.D. Indian influences would have reached the Philippines from the 10th through the early 14th centuries, based on the events in these two regions, and not necessarily through direct migration from the Indian subcontinent to the Philippines. Artifacts of Indian orientation have been found in some islands of the Philippines but are not very extensive. The golden image of the female Boddhisattva which was found in Agusan, was related to the development of Buddhism in Southeast Asia dating back to the late 13th and 14th centuries. The introduction of Sanskrit words and literature may be dated to the 10th and 12th centuries. Until now, Sanskrit words are still found in abundance in various Philippine languages. Then there is the folk narrative among the Maranao, known as Maharadia Lawana which shows an Indian character and whose story is very similar to the Indian epic Ramayana. During the period 1762-1764, during the various Anglo-Spanish wars, 600 Sepoy (or native Indian) troops arrived in the Philippines as part of the military expedition of the East India Company. When the British troops withdrew, many of the Sepoys mutinied and refused to leave. They settled in what is now Cainta, Rizal. The region in and around Cainta still has many Sepoy descendants. During the 18th century, there was robust trade between Manila and the Coromandel Coast of Bengal, involving Philippine exports of tobacco, silk, cotton, indigo, sugar cane and coffee.

Establishment of diplomatic relations
The Philippines established diplomatic relations with India on 16 November 1949. The first Philippine envoy to India was the late Foreign Secretary Narciso Ramos. Seven years after India’s independence in 1947, the Philippines and India signed a Treaty of Friendship on 11 July 1952 in Manila to strengthen the friendly relations existing between the two countries. Soon after, the Philippine Legation in New Delhi was established and then elevated to an Embassy. However, due to foreign policy differences as a result of the bipolar alliance structure of the Cold War, the development of bilateral relations was stunted. It was only in 1976 that relations started to normalize when Mr. Aditya Birla, one of India’s successful industrialists, met with then President Ferdinand E. Marcos to explore possibilities of setting up joint ventures in the Philippines. This resulted in the establishment of Indo-Philippine Textile Mills, Inc. (Indo-Phil), then the largest Indian investment in the country. Indo-Phil currently employs 2,000 Filipino workers and supplies 40% of Philippine domestic demand for yarn.[ In commemoration of the 60th anniversary of Philippines–India diplomatic relations, and pursuant to Presidential Proclamation 1924, the month of November 2009 was proclaimed as Philippines–India Friendship Month by then President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.[ The Policy Consultation Talks between the two countries was established in 2000. The talks, which are held annually and conducted by the foreign offices of the two countries on the level of senior officials, aimed at discussing bilateral issues and regional and international issues of common concern. The first RP–India Security Dialogue was held in Manila on 12 March 2004. The Philippines and India agreed to establish a security dialogue that would serve as a policy forum for sharing security assessments and for reviewing and giving direction to cooperation in bilateral/regional security and defense matters. Both countries also signed a Joint Declaration for Cooperation to Combat International Terrorism to complement the ASEAN-India Joint Declaration to Combat International Terrorism which was adopted by the Heads of Government and States of ASEAN and India on 8 October 2003 in Bali, Indonesia.[citation needed] The declaration seeks to enhance intelligence and information sharing on counter-terrorism measures, strengthen capacity-building efforts through training and education, capability and readiness, including training and technical assistance; and to continue working together in the fight against the cyber crime and terrorist misuse of cyber space. The Trade Agreement between the Philippines and India was signed on 29 May 1979.[citation needed] In 1995, following the first Philippine Trade Mission to India, a Joint Working Group and a Joint Business Council were set up to assess and identify potentials for trade as well as identify new areas for collaboration. Since then, bilateral meetings have been held regularly.

Joint Commission on Bilateral Cooperation
The agreement to establish a Joint Commission on Bilateral Cooperation was signed during the State Visit to India of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on 5 October 2007.[citation needed] The establishment of the Joint Commission on Bilateral Cooperation aims to further strengthen and develop the cooperation in the field of trade, economic, scientific, technological and other fields of cooperation. The meeting of the Joint Commission will be co-chaired by the two countries’ Ministers for Foreign Affairs who will meet once every two years. The inaugural session of the Joint Commission was held on 15 March 2011, co-chaired by Foreign Affairs Secretary Albert F. Del Rosario, and was held in New Delhi.[citation needed] During the meeting both sides agreed to move forward on cooperative initiatives in various fronts (trade, agriculture, defense).

Iran

Ambassador Aladin G. Villacorte presented his Letters of Credence to H.R. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran at ceremonies held at the Presidential Palace in Tehran on September 10, 2007. In a brief statement, Ambassador Villacorte expressed his warm felicitations on behalf of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and the Filipino people, underscoring the Philippine commitment to see full range of our relations to grow and mature, particularly in the fields of trade and investment, tourism and culture. Ambassador Villacorte also emphasized that both Philippines and Iran have collaborate on issue of global concern. “Indeed we have made significant contributions to the promotion of the better understanding among nations through interfaith dialogue and cooperation." There is also a population of thousands of Iranians living in the Philippines, mostly in Metro Manila.[15] [edit]Republic of Ireland

Main article: Ireland–Philippines relations
The Irish and the Filipinos have long had a close relationship, and are especially close in modern times. The Republic of Ireland has a sizeable Filipino community because it is a major employer of Filipino nurses in Europe.

Israel

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Considered a key vote in the creation of a Jewish state, the Philippines was the only Asian nation to vote in favor of a United Nations partition resolution on November 29, 1947.[citation needed] The partition resolution created the country of Israel in the former British Mandate of Palestine. Full diplomatic relations between the Philippines and Israel did not occur until 1957. The Philippine Embassy opened in Tel Avivin 1962; the Israeli embassy opened in Manila in the same year. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed by the two countries in 1997, further cementing bilateral political dialogue between the foreign ministries. There are approximately 60,000 Filipino workers, in Israel.[16]

Japan
 See also Japan–Philippines relations
Relations between the Philippines and Japan have rapidly improved since the end of World War II. Modern relations between the Philippines and Japan are very close and Japan is a key trading, economic and possibly military ally of the Philippines. Japan has also assisted the Philippines in building tunnels, bridges and highways (motorway) in Metro Manila, and is a main source of rail equipment and advisor for rail transport development. In 2005/2006 Japan dropped an US$8 billion debt with the Philippines and after the Leyte Mud slide Japan deployed soldiers to Leyte to assist Filipino and foreign workers. There are thousands of Japanese nationals/citizens (civilians) living in the Philippines Japanese business people have opened a large number of businesses in the Philippines offering jobs to Filipino workers.

Malaysia
Main article: Malaysia–Philippines relations

Philippines has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Manila. The people of the two neighboring countries speak similar languages, and have a long history of close economic and political relations. They are both founding members of ASEAN, and are important trading partners. The two countries have participated in joint conservation measures in the Sulu Sea, which lies between the two countries. Malaysia has assisted in peacekeeping efforts in the Muslim insurgency in Mindanao. The countries are both involved in ongoing disputes over ownership of the Spratly Islands and the Philippines has a claim over the Sabah state in northern Borneo though this is currently not being actively pursued.

Mexico

Viceroyalty of Mexico
Mexico and the Philippines share a myriad of traditions and customs derived from historical ties established nearly 450 years ago. Their common history dates back to the time when both countries were part of New Spain. King Philip II of Spain ordered the expedition known as the Legazpi exploration. During the Mexican administration of the Philippines, other than General Legazpi, all of the governor-generals were born in Mexico. Due to the extensive contact with the Philippines in those days, many cultural traits were adopted by one another, with Mexicans remaining in the Philippines, and Filipinos establishing in Mexico, particularly the central west coast, near the port town ofAcapulco. Many Nahuatl words were adopted and popularized in the Philippines, such as Tianggui (market fair) and Zapote (a fruit).[17] [edit]Establishment of diplomatic relations

Mexico administered the Philippines up until 1815, when the insurgent movement begun and Spain had to take direct control of the islands. After the colonial administration period from Mexico, the first official contacts of Mexico with the Philippines were established in 1842, when a Mexican Representation was opened in Manila. With the assignment of Mexican Diplomat Evaristo Butler Hernandez in the Philippines in 1878.[18] In 1935, Mexico's Secretary of Foreign Affairs appointed Alfredo Carmelo y de las Casas as Honorary Consul of Mexico in the Philippines, position that he held until 1945. After the Second World War, the Independence of the Philippines brought forth a new era of relations between the two countries. Mexico dispatched an envoy to participate in the festivities to celebrate the birth of the Southeast Asian nation. Diplomatic ties between both countries were formalized on April 14 of 1953. The year of 1964 was decreed the "Year of Philippine-Mexican Friendship" to celebrate the Fourth Centennial of the Expedition of Miguel López de Legazpi. In modern day, the conquest of the Philippines is seen as a Spanish initiative, while Mexicans view it as a historical link of brotherly friendship, and several groups intend on strengthening relations between the two countries.[18] Mexico has an embassy in Manila, and the Philippines has an embassy in Mexico City. Both countries share a multitude of bilateral agreements including cooperation in Science, Technology, Culture, Tourism, Education, and the fight against illegal drug trafficking and abuse. There is currently an initiative to distinguish the long lasting relation by formalizing the Filipino section of Mexico City's Chinatown by creating Barrio Manila or Barrio Filipino(Little Manila) in or near the current area within Downtown Mexico City. Netherlands

The Netherlands is currently one of Philippines most important trading partners within the EU. The two have shared major trading partnership back to when the Philippines was a Spanish colony.

New Zealand

Royal New Zealand Air Force A-4K Skyhawks in Clark Air Force Base, Philippines during Exercise COPE THUNDER '84-7 on 10 September 1984. The Philippines and New Zealand share normal diplomatic, trade, (small scale) military and economic relations. The Philippines and New Zealand were/are also partners in the Korean War,Vietnam War and War on Terror. There are over 16,000 Filipinos residing in New Zealand and in turn there are 2,000 New Zealanders in the Philippines.[citation needed] The Philippines has an embassy in Wellington and 2 other consulates, one in Auckland and inChristchurch. Law Enforcement

The New Zealand police is currently helping the Philippine National Police combat methamphetamine.[19] The New Zealand Police also helps in providing training to the Philippine National Police.[20]

North Korea

In 2000, the Philippines and North Korea finally established diplomatic relations after more than 20 years of negotiations, although trade between the two countries is almost non-existent, as they both still have a trade embargo. In 2007, the agreement was boosted further and was signed by Philippine Foreign Secretary Alberto Romulo and North Korean Foreign Minister Pak Ui Chun during the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN) meeting in Manila.[34] Philippines has a representation in Pyongyang, thru embassy in Beijing; and North Korea has a representation thru its embassy in Bangkok.

Pakistan
Main article: Pakistan–Philippines relations

The official visit by Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf to the Philippines on April 18, 2005 signaled increased relations between the two nations. Four agreements were signed in the presence of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and visiting Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf in the presidential palace: * a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on combating terrorism and certain other crimes; * an agreement on the abolition of visa requirements for holders of diplomatic passports and the facilitation of issuance of entry visas to holders of official passports; * an agreement on program of cultural exchanges from 2005 to 2009, calling for the implementation of various exchanges in the cultural information materials, performing arts and the promotion, conservation, restoration of historical and cultural patrimony; and * a MOU formalizing the business agreements between the Philippine International Trading Corp. (PITC) and United Marketing of Pakistan for the supply of pharmaceuticals from Pakistan to support the low-cost medicines program of the Philippine government. Apart from the four agreements, President Musharraf also assured Pakistan's full support for the Philippine government's efforts to end the decades old rebellion in the southern islands of Mindanao.

Papua New Guinea

On March 2009, The Philippines and Papua New Guinea entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) that would enhance the cooperation between the two countries on the development of fisheries. The MoU will facilitate technology transfer in aquaculture development, promotion of shipping ventures, investments, technical training, joint research, and “strategic complementation” of each country’s plans in the “Coral Triangle” – or the waters between the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands.[22] The fisheries trade is significantly responsible for recent overall trade growth between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea.

People's Republic of China
Main article: People's Republic of China–Philippines relations

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The Philippines and China established diplomatic relations on June 9, 1975 with the signing of the Joint Communiqué by leaders of the two countries. Since then bilateral relations between the two countries have developed steadily despite some difficulties. Both countries have maintained high level contacts and exchanges. Several major bilateral agreements were signed between the two countries over the years, such as: Joint Trade Agreement (1975); Scientific and Technological Cooperation Agreement (1978); Postal Agreement (1978); Air Services Agreement (1979); Visiting Forces Agreement (1999); Cultural Agreement (1979); Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (1992); Agreement on Agricultural Cooperation (1999); Tax Agreement (1999); and Treaty on Mutual Judicial Assistance on Criminal Matters (2000). In May 2000, on the eve of the 25th anniversary of their diplomatic relations, the two countries signed a Joint Statement defining the framework of bilateral relations in the 21st century. Bilateral relations between the Philippines and China have significantly progressed in recent years. The growing bilateral relations were highlighted by the state visit to China of Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on 29–31 October 2001. During the visit, President Arroyo held bilateral talks with top Chinese leaders, namely President Jiang Zemin, NPC Chairman Li Peng, and Premier Zhu Rongji. President Arroyo also attended the 9th APEC Economic Leaders Meeting held in Shanghai on October 20–21, 2001, where she also had bilateral talks with President Jiang. During President Arroyo's visit, eight important bilateral agreements were signed.

Romania
 See Philippines–Romania relations

Russia

Main article: Philippines–Russia relations
Philippine ambassador to Moscow, Russia Ernesto V. Llamas, reported to the Department of foreign affairs that the Philippines and Russia observed 30 years of formal, diplomatic relations on June 2, 2006, through an exchange of top-level officials in the mass media and a recognition of initiatives in the field of politics, economics, culture and tourism.[24] Llamas said that President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and Russian President Vladimir Putin exchanged official messages in the two countries' leading newspapers, The Philippine Star and Lzvestia. As of 2007, the Russian ambassador to the Philippines is Vitaly Y. Vorobiev.[25] Russia has an embassy in Manila. The Philippines has an embassy in Moscow, and two honorary consulates (in Saint Petersburg and Vladivostok). [edit]Other Economic Relations

Russian Ambassador to the Philippines said on Tuesday, April 24, that Russia is laying the infrastructure to become a major oil supplier to Asian countries and is considering proposals to build an oil refinery and storage facilities in the Philippines to serve Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian countries have expressed interest in Russia's plans to become an important energy provider in the region and Moscow should carefully plan how it could assume that crucial role, Ambassador Vitaly Vorobiev told foreign correspondents.[26] OFW[ Situation

Due to a sharp increase in the number of Filipino nationals being sought to work in private homes throughout Russia, the Philippine Government has deemed it necessary to impose new requirements on the direct hiring of Filipino housekeepers and nannies in Russia in order to secure their well-being through placement in qualified households as well as ensure the engagement of only competent staff.[27]

South Korea
 South Korea is one of the Philippines' largest trading partners. The two nations were especially close as the Armed Forces of the Philippines, under the United Nations command of Douglas MacArthur, were pledged to fight for South Korea and its allies in the Korean War. Last[clarification needed] November 21, President Lee Myung-bak visited the Philippines during the Korea - Philippine Business forum together with President Benigno Aquino III.

Spain
 The Philippines was the lone Spanish colony in Asia for almost three and a half centuries. There continues to be mixed feelings between many Filipinos towards Spain and the common negative resentment most Filipinos have towards the colonial mentality that has been ingrained in many Filipinos, but relations have improved significantly over the years since after independence. Philippine PresidentGloria Macapagal-Arroyo concluded her second state visit in Spain in July 2006, bringing back millions of dollars of Spanish investments, particularly in Tourism and Information Technology. The Spanish king, Juan Carlos I, also reiterated in Mrs. Arroyo's visit, his support for her project in the Philippines to re-establish Spanish as an official language in the country. He and his wife, Queen Sofia attended the 1998 centennial celebrations in Manila, commemorating 100 years of independence from Spain. The mediation of King Juan Carlos I is said to have produced the pardon and liberation of 2 Filipina domestic workers sentenced to death in Kuwait and the UAE.

Republic of China
 The Philippines recognize the One China Policy but has relations to the Republic of China (ROC, also known as Taiwan) through the Manila Economic and Cultural Office in Taipei and Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Manila. Both offices were established in 1975 and were organized as non-profit and non-stock private corporations. Total Investment Amount: US$1.1 billion (Taiwan is the 5th largest foreign investor in the Philippines) Philippine Exports to Taiwan: US$3.1 billion

Philippine Imports from Taiwan: US$2.3 billion
OFWs in Taiwan: 87,000 (the 2nd largest foreign worker nationality group in Taiwan) Trips to the Philippines by Taiwanese: 73,000 people (the 5th in foreign tourist arrivals in the Philippines) By early March 2011, the Philippines deported 15 Taiwanese drug pushers to Beijing,China. The ROC protested against this action. The Philippine government sent Manuel Roxas II to talk with ROC President Ma Ying-jeou. During the visit, Roxas mentioned that the Philippines "regret" their actions. But the ROC maintained that the Philippines apologize for their action. The mission failed, so a second one was sent, headed again by Roxas. The mission, however, failed. From then on, ROC-Philippine relations became strained. But now the ROC and Philippines are back to normal.

United Kingdom

The UK and the Philippines have good relations. On 2002 President Arroyo and the then Prime Minister Tony Blair met to talk about Poverty and Terrorism.[28] Then on December 2007 President Arroyo met Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II to talk about the situation of Filipinos in the UK.[29] The Philippines has been one of the UK's major recruitment countries for nurses and over 80,000 Filipino nurses and care-givers work in the UK. The total Philippine community in the UK is estimated to be about 150,000. There are estimated to be some 15,000 British nationals living in the Philippines. About 65,000 British nationals visit the Philippines annually.[30] The UK has also supplied the Philippine military with the Simba APC, Alvis Scorpion Tank, and the Peacock class patrol vessel. [edit]United States

 see Philippines–United States relations

The Philippine Embassy in the United States
The United States and the Philippines continue to enjoy excellent relations with each other. The United States was the architect of the current form of government in the Philippines through a series of acts of the United States Congress towards the creation of a commonwealth.[31] The relationship between the two nations is founded on the Philippines' history as an American territory and commonwealth before achieving independence. The two societies also share some cultural identities: the plans of Manila andBaguio City were designed by Daniel Burnham[32] of Chicago, Illinois, Americans and Filipinos speak the English language, are largely Christian, and both have a fondness for baseball and basketball.[33] The two share political heroes: William Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. both served as Governors-General of the Philippines and Douglas MacArthur liberated the islands from the Japanese during World War II. A largely Roman Catholic country, the Pope appointed several Americans as bishops of the various Philippines dioceses during the territorial and commonwealth years, including leadership over the Archdiocese of Manila.[34] In 2007, Benedict XVI appointed an American to be his ambassador to the Philippines, Archbishop Edward Joseph Adams ofPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania. Conflict

Shortly after the conclusion of the Spanish-American War and the transfer of sovereignty over the Philippines from Spain to the United States via the Treaty of Paris which ended that war, the insurgent First Philippine Republic government declared war on the United States. ThePhilippine-American War ended with the loss of more than 4000 American soldiers, and the deaths of up to 1,000,000 Filipinos. In the US, this war is largely forgotten, or remembered simply as the aftermath of the Spanish-American War. In the Philippines, it is remembered as a patriotic struggle for independence, and for the brief institution of the First Philippine Republic.

Embassy and consulates
The Philippines Embassy is located in Washington, D.C. With the geographic extent of the United States and its large number of Filipinoresident aliens, the Philippines established several official consulates: Agana, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York City, Saipan andSan Francisco. Honorary consulates were opened in other locations.[36] Each official consulate has jurisdiction over a number of U.S. states. For example, the Consul in Chicago oversees a territory of fourteen states in the Midwestern United States.[37] [edit]Military alliance

Commonwealth President Manuel Quezon meets with U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to discuss Pacific Theater operations. Since the Spanish-American War, the United States has had a military presence in various forms in the Philippines. Filipinos fought alongside Americans in World War I, World War II,Korean War and Vietnam War. Today, the two are allies in the War on Terrorism.[38] While its military bases were closed during the presidency of Fidel V. Ramos, the United States continues to adhere to the Mutual Defense Treaty ratified by the United States and Philippines senates in 1951.[39] In 2003, U.S. President George W. Bush declared the Philippines as a major non-NATO ally, an important defense designation of the United States. Now defunct, the Philippines joined the American-developed South East Asia Treaty Organization during the Cold War. SEATO was a NATO-type military alliance created to combat Communist threats in Southeast Asia. Today, the two countries are primarily partners in counterterrorism. Both the Philippines and the United States share intelligence and engage in military exercises in Mindanao andRIMPAC in Hawaii. The Philippines and the United States supported each other in wars such as: * The Spanish-American War

* World War I
* World War II
* Hukbalahap Rebellion
* The Korean War
* Communist Insurgency in the Philippines
* The Vietnam War
* Gulf War
* War in Kosovo
* War on Terror
* Insurgency in the Philippines
* Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines
* 2003 Invasion of Iraq
[edit]Mutual Defense Treaty
Main article: Mutual Defense Treaty (U.S.–Philippines)
The Mutual Defense Treaty Between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America was signed and ratified on August 30, 1951 in Washington, D.C. between representatives of the Philippines and the United States. The overall accord contained eight articles and dictated that both nations would support each other if either the Philippines or the United States were to be attacked by an external party.[39] [edit]Visiting Forces Agreements

Main article: RP–US Visiting Forces Agreement
The Philippines has bilateral agreements with the United States relating to the status of visiting forces.

Vietnam
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Since the end of the Cold War relations between the Philippines and Vietnam have warmed rapidly. Today the Philippines and Vietnam are economic allies and have a free trade deal with each other. Both nations are a part of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) andAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The Philippines and Vietnam have conducted joint military exercises together in the South China Sea and are trying to find ways to turn the Spratly Islands from an area of conflict to an area of cooperation. Vietnam is also sometimes called the only communist military ally of the Philippines. The Philippines and Vietnam are also monitoring China's expansion into the South China Sea making sure that China is no threat to either Philippine or Vietnamese islands in the South China Sea. The Philippines also imports a large amount of writing material, clothes and other products from Vietnam. On May 2009, The Philippines signed an agreement with Vietnam to cooperate in the fight against crime and to ensure social order.[40] On January 2010, the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) signed a memorandum of understanding with the Vietnam bourse “for mutual collaboration and communication of information and experience” to facilitate the development and efficient operation of both securities markets.[41] -------------------------------------------------

[
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Issues
The Spanish Administration governed various Pacific island colonies from Manila. These include the present-day Caroline Islands, Guam,Northern Marianas Islands, Palau and parts of Micronesia, all of which were given separate administrations under American oversight after Spain transferred power to the United States in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. Spanish Manila also governed possessions in Borneo,Halmahera, Taiwan, Pulau Ternate and Pulau Tidore, all of which transferred to non-American entities after the Spanish-American War. While the transfer of power after Spanish colonial rule was made clear through treaties, other territories' sovereignty were not as clear. Many of those disputes continue today.

Sabah
See also: Sabah dispute
Sabah, the largest region which the Philippines claim, is now an integral part of Malaysia. On January 23, 1878, Sulu Sultan Jamalul Alam leased his territory in Borneo, in which is now Sabah, to Austrian Gustavus von Overbeck. The Sultan was paid 5,000 Ringgit every year for the lease. In 1920, despite calls made by Washington to London regarding Sabah, the latter was still made a crown colony of the United Kingdom.[citation needed] On September 16, 1963, the United Kingdom formally ceded Sabah to Malaysia.[citation needed] Philippine Presidents Diosdado Macapagal and Ferdinand Marcos openly claimed Sabah. The latter even ordered Sabah to be put into the Philippine map. Despite challenges of the Philippine government to bring the matter of the dispute to the International Court of Justice (ICJ), Malaysia still rejects those calls. During 2003, violent mass deportations[citation needed] of illegal Filipinos residing in Sabah resulted in more clamor for the Sabah claim. Up to this day, Malaysia still pays the annual rent of 5,000 Malaysian Ringgit to the Sultan's heirs. [edit]Scarborough Shoal

The Scarborough Shoal (Panatag Shoal), located west of Palauig, Zambales, are claimed by the Philippines, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Currently, a Philippines naval fleet guards the area. The Philippines bases its claim on its close proximity of the Scarborough Shoal to the Philippines. It also says that the Scarborough Shoal is within the Filipino Exclusive Economic Zone and arguesterra nullius. A Yuan Dynasty map dated as early as 1279 is the basis for the claim of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. They argue that the area was historically used by their fishermen.

Spratly Islands
The Spratly Islands are a group of islands, reefs, and rocks located about 300 kilometers West of Aborlan, Palawan. The Philippines, along with the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Brunei expressed claims. The Philippines officially staked a claim to some of the islands during the United Nations convention, although it was first expressed in 1956, when Tomas Cloma, a Philippine mariner, officially declared some of the eastern Spratlys as a protectorate of the Philippines. Based on proximity and on the United Nations Archipelagic Doctrine, the Philippines can claim some of the Spratlys as an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Whether these arguments (or any other used by the Philippines) would hold up in court is debatable but possibly moot, as the PRC and Vietnam seem unwilling to legally substantiate their claims and have rejected Philippine challenges to take the dispute to the World Maritime Tribunal in Hamburg.

Sulawesi Sea Islands
The case of Sipadan and Ligitan, which were in dispute between Malaysia and Indonesia, was taken into the ICJ, in which the former won. Sipadan and Ligitan are technically part of Sabah state, and thus would be part of the claim of the Sulu Sultanate's heir, the Philippines.

Illicit drugs
The country, an archipelago, is a source for locally produced marijuana and hashish and is possible that it is illegally shipped to East Asia, the United States, and other Western markets. It serves as a transit point for heroin and crystal methamphetamine. -------------------------------------------------

Philippines - Foreign policy

n keeping with tradition, Macapagal-Arroyo's foreign policy has been oriented toward business, diplomatic, and military relationships with the US. In the latter part of the 1980s and early 1990s, Filipino-American ties came under heavy criticism as nationalists condemned the presence of US military bases in Olongapo and Angeles cities. The Aquino government refused to renew the bases agreement beyond its September 1991 expiration date, and the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 caused extensive damage to Clark Air Base before its closure. A new treaty to permit continued US operation of Subic Naval Station was rejected by the Philippine Senate in late 1991. Arroyo reestablished these relations in a November 2001 state visit to the US where she was promised $100 million in military assistance. She made yet another state visit in May 2003 in which President Bush described Filipino-US relations as stronger than at any other time in recent history. The US committed to extend $30 million in new grants and aid for the Philippine armed forces, $30 million for new bilateral development assistance focused on Mindanao, and $25 million for a combat engineering unit. Bush capped the visit by elevating the Philippines to a special non-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ally as Australia and Egypt. Following the withdrawal of American military forces in 1992, the Philippine military assumed increasing responsibility for defense of the country with sometimes lackluster results. However, the US-led campaign against terrorism and the ardent support of Macapagal-Arroyo for this effort triggered a reexamination of the policy, and in February 2002, 160 US special forces with 500 support staff arrived on the island of Basilan in Mindanao. The presence of these troops has caused anxiety in the Parliament and could well hurt Macapagal-Arroyo's bid for another term should she change her mind about 2004. She softened her position at the non-aligned movement summit in February 2003 where she recommended pragmatic action in Iraq and North Korea. One problem is that the Filipino domestic war on insurgency cannot easily be delinked from international terrorism. Abu Sayyaf has ties to Bin Laden and al-Qaida networks, and is thought to number from 1,000 to 2,000 members. Militant Islamic groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), which counts some 12,500 members, has trained radical Muslim combatants from Indonesia. In this light, Macapagal-Arroyo accepted a Malaysia and Libya-brokered peace accord between the Filipino government and the MILF, which by end of May 2003 looked promising. After the US, the Philippines' leading trading partner is Japan, which also is the nation's largest aid donor. Macapagal-Arroyo received a state visit to Japan in December 2002 and further strengthened the economic bonds between the two countries. She considers trade with China "a big opportunity," but relations with Hong Kong are cold due to Hong Kong's decision to cut wages of maids, many of whom are Filipinas. The Macapagal administration also faces on-going diplomatic challenges with China, Vietnam, and Malaysia over competing claims to the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea.

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Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo|
|
14th President of the Philippines|
In office
January 20, 2001 – June 30, 2010|
Vice President| Teofisto Guingona
Noli de Castro|
Preceded by| Joseph Estrada|
Succeeded by| Benigno Aquino III|
12th Vice President of the Philippines|
In office
June 30, 1998 – January 20, 2001|
President| Joseph Estrada|
Preceded by| Joseph Estrada|
Succeeded by| Teofisto Guingona|
Member of the House of Representatives
from Pampanga's 2nd district|
Incumbent|
Assumed office
June 30, 2010|
Preceded by| Mikey Arroyo|
Senator of the Philippines|
In office
June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998|
Personal details|
Born| April 5, 1947 (age 64)[1]
San Juan, Philippines|
Political party| Lakas Kampi CMD (2009–present)|
Other political
affiliations| LDP (Before 1998)
KAMPI (1997–2009)
Lakas-CMD (1998–2009)|
Spouse(s)| Jose Miguel Arroyo|
Children| Juan Miguel M. Arroyo
Evangelina Lourdes Arroyo-Bernas
Diosdado Ignacio Jose Maria M. Arroyo|
Alma mater| Georgetown University
Assumption College
Ateneo de Manila University
University of the Philippines, Diliman|
Signature| |
Website| Official website|

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) is a Filipino politician who served as the 14thPresident of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippinesfrom 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the2nd District of Pampanga. She was the country's second female president (after Corazón Aquino), and the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal. She was a former professor of economics at Ateneo De Manila University where Noynoy Aquinowas one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazón Aquino. After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidencyunder President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition to the president, who faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced from office by the EDSA Revolution of 2001, and Arroyo was sworn into the presidency by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. on January 20, 2001. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004. Following her presidency she was elected to the House of Representatives, making her the second Philippine president—after Jose P. Laurel—to pursue a lower office after their presidency. She is currently residing at La Vista Subdivision in Quezon City. On November 18, 2011, she was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral sabotage.

She was born as María Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal to politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife, Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado "Boboy" Macapagal, Jr. and Cielo Macapagal-Salgado. She spent the first years of her life in Lubao, Pampanga, with her two older siblings from her father's first marriage.[1] At the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal grandmother in Iligan City.[2] She stayed there for three years, then split her time between Mindanao and Manila until the age of 11.[2] She is fluent in English,Tagalog, Spanish and several other Philippine languages, most importantly, Kapampangan,Ilokano, and Cebuano.

In 1961, when Arroyo was just 14 years old, her father was elected as president. She moved with her family into Malacañang Palace in Manila. A municipality was named in her honor, Gloria, Oriental Mindoro. She attendedAssumption Convent for her elementary and high school education, graduating valedictorian in 1964. Arroyo then studied for two years atGeorgetown University's Walsh School of Foreign Service in Washington, D.C. where she was a classmate of future United States PresidentBill Clinton and achieved consistent Dean's list status.[3] She then earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Assumption College, graduating magna cum laude in 1968.

In 1968, Arroyo married lawyer and businessman Jose Miguel Arroyo of Binalbagan, Negros Occidental, whom she had met while still a teenager.[1] They had three children, Juan Miguel (born 1969), Evangelina Lourdes (born 1971) and Diosdado Ignacio Jose María (born in 1974). She pursued a Master's Degree in Economics at the Ateneo de Manila University (1978) and a Doctorate Degree in Economics from the University of the Philippines Diliman (1985).[4] From 1977 to 1987, she held teaching positions in several schools, notably the University of the Philippines and the Ateneo de Manila University. She became chairperson of the Economics Department at Assumption College. In 1987 she was invited by President Corazón Aquino to join the government as Assistant Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry. She was promoted to Undersecretary two years later. In her concurrent position as Executive Director of the Garments and Textile Export Board, Arroyo oversaw the rapid growth of the garment industry in the late 1980s.

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Senator
Arroyo entered politics in the 1992 election, running for senator. At the first general election under the 1987 Constitution, the top twelve vote-getting senatorial candidates would win a six-year term, and the next twelve candidates would win a three-year term.[5] Arroyo ranked 13th in the elections, earning a three-year term. She was re-elected in 1995, topping the senatorial election with nearly 16 million votes.

As a legislator, Arroyo filed over 400 bills and authored or sponsored 55 laws during her tenure as senator, including the Anti-Sexual Harassment Law, the Indigenous People's Rights Law, and the Export Development Act.[1] The 1995 Mining Act, which allows 100% foreign ownership of Philippine mines, has come under fire from left-wing political groups. -------------------------------------------------

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Vice Presidency
Arroyo considered a run for the presidency in the 1998 election, but was persuaded by President Fidel V. Ramos and leaders of the administration party Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats to instead seek the vice-presidency as the running mate of its presidential candidate, House Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr.[6] Though the latter lost to popular former actor Joseph Estrada, Arroyo won the vice presidency by a large margin, garnering more than twice the votes of her closest opponent, Estrada's running mate Senator Edgardo Angara.[7] Arroyo began her term as Vice President on June 30, 1998. Historically, she was the first and only to date female Vice President of the Philippines. She was appointed by Estrada to a concurrent position in the cabinet as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development.[6]

Arroyo resigned from the cabinet in October 2000, distancing herself from President Estrada, who was accused of corruption by a former political supporter, Chavit Singson, Governor from Ilocos Sur.[8] She had initially resisted pressure from allies to speak out against Estrada,[9]but eventually joined calls for Estrada's resignation.[8]

First Term (2001–2004)
Succession

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo displayed on atwo hundred peso bill, being sworn in as president by Chief Justice Hilario Davide Jr. in January 2001. The last quarter of 2000 up to the first week of January 2001 was a period of political and economic uncertainty for the Philippines. On January 16, 2001, the impeachment trial has also taken a new direction. Private prosecutors walked out of the trial when pro-Estrada senators prevented the opening of an evidence (a brown envelope) containing bank records allegedly owned by President Estrada. With the walk out, the impeachment trial was not completed and the Filipinos eventually took to the street to continue the clamor for President Estrada's resignation. From January 17 to 20, 2001, hundreds of thousands of Filipinos gathered at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), the site of the original People Power Revolution. The clamor for a change in the presidency gained momentum as various sectors of Philippine society – professionals, students, artists, politicians, leftist and rightist groups – joined what became known as EDSA II. Officials of the administration, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), and the Philippine National Police (PNP) also withdrew their support for President Estrada. Days after leaving Malacañang Palace, President Estrada's lawyers questioned the legitimacy of Arroyo's presidency before the Supreme Court. He reiterated that he did not resign as president and that at most, Arroyo was just serving in an acting capacity. The high court, however, voted unanimously in upholding the legitimacy of Arroyo's succession. As a consequence, Estrada no longer enjoys immunity from charges being filed against him.

In the last week of April 2001, the Sandiganbayan ordered the arrest of Estrada and his son, Senator Jinggoy Estrada, for plunder charges. A few days later, Estrada supporters protested his arrest, gathered at the EDSA Shrine, and staged what they called, EDSA III – comparing their actions to the People Power revolution of 1986 and January 2001. Thousands of protesters demanded the release of Estrada. Eventually, they also called for the ouster of Arroyo and the reinstatement of the former. On May 1, 2001, they marched towards Malacañang to force Arroyo to give in to their demands. Violence erupted when the protesters attempted to storm the presidential palace and the military and police were forced to use their arms to drive them back. Arroyo declared a state of rebellion because of the violence and prominent political personalities affiliated with Estrada were charged and arrested. The so-called EDSA III was the first serious political challenge to the Arroyo presidency.

Oakwood Mutiny
Main article: Oakwood mutiny
The Oakwood mutiny occurred in the Philippines on July 27, 2003. A group of 321 armed soldiers who called themselves "Bagong Katipuneros"[10] led by Army Capt. Gerardo Gambala and Lt. Antonio Trillanes IV of the Philippine Navy took over the Oakwood Premier Ayala Center (now Ascott Makati) serviced apartment tower in Makati City to show the Filipino people the alleged corruption of the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration. They also stated that they saw signs suggesting that the President was going to declare martial law.

2004 Presidential Election
Article VII Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution explicitly states that the president of the Philippines can only serve for one term. However, the same provision also implicitly states that a president's successor who has not served for more than four years can still seek a full term for the presidency. Although Arroyo falls under this category, she initially announced on December 30, 2002 that she will no longer seek the presidency. She emphasized that she will devote her remaining months in office to serving the people and improving the economy of the Philippines. In October 2003, Arroyo changed her mind and announced that she will run for the May 2004 presidential elections and seek a direct mandate from the people. She explained that, "there is a higher cause to change society...in a way that nourishes our future". With her decision, the initial criticisms hurled against Arroyo centered on her lack of word of honor. As predicted by SWS exit polls, Arroyo won the election by a margin of over one million votes against Poe. However, the congressional canvassing was quite contentious as opposition lawmakers in the National Board of Canvassers argued that there were many discrepancies in the election returns and that insinuations of cheating were raised. On June 23, 2004, Congress proclaimed Arroyo and Noli de Castro as president and vice president, respectively.

Second Term (2004–2010)
2004 Presidential Election rigging allegations

Arroyo taking her Oath of Office for a full term as president in Cebu City on June 30, 2004. On June 30, 2004, in a break with tradition, Arroyo first delivered her inaugural speech at theQuirino Grandstand in Manila. She then departed for Cebu City for her oath taking, the first time that a Philippine president took the oath of office outside of Luzon. Allegations of cheating against Arroyo gained momentum one year after the May 2004 elections. In a press conference held on June 10, 2005, Samuel Ong, former deputy director of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) claimed to have audio recordings of wiretapped conversations between Arroyo and an official of the Commission on Elections (COMELEC). Virgilio Garcillano, a former COMELEC commissioner, would later be identified as the official talking to Arroyo. According to Ong, the recordings allegedly proved that Arroyo ordered the rigging of the national elections for her to win by around one million votes against Poe. The recordings of Ong became known as the Hello Garci controversy and triggered massive protests against Arroyo. Key members of her cabinet resigned from their respective posts and urged Arroyo to do the same. On June 27, 2005, Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to a COMELEC official, claiming it was a "lapse in judgement". She, however, denied influencing the outcome of the elections and declared that she won the elections fairly. Arroyo did not resign despite the pressures coming from various sectors of society. The Hello Garci controversy became the basis of the impeachment case filed against Arroyo in 2005. Attempts to impeach Arroyo failed later that year. Another impeachment case was filed against Arroyo in 2006 but was also defeated at the House of representatives. In October 2007, lawyer Alan Paguia filed an impeachment complaint against Arroyo in connection with the issue of bribery. Paguia's complaint was based on the revelation of Pampanga Gov. Ed Panlilio that various governors received half a million pesos from Malacañang. The impeachment case, as of the middle of October 2007, has already been referred to the House of Representatives Committee on Justice. State of Emergency

Main article: 2006 state of emergency in the Philippines
On February 24, 2006, a plot to take over the government was uncovered by authorities, allegedly headed by Gen. Danilo Lim and other rightist military adventurists. General Lim and some of his men were arrested. To face the threat posed by enemies of the state, Arroyo issued Presidential Proclamation 1017 (PP 1017) and used it as basis in declaring a state of emergency throughout the Philippines. According to Arroyo, this declaration was done to quell the military rebellion, stop lawless violence, and promote peace and stability. PP 1017 also empowered the government to enforce warrantless arrests and take over strategic private utilities companies. On February 25, 2006, the police raided the office of the Daily Tribune, a newspaper known as a critic of the Arroyo administration. The government then issued a journalism guidelines to address the threat posed by critics in the media. Presidential Management Staff chiefMichael Defensor said that the guidelines were necessary in order to cope with the emergency situation. The state of emergency existed for about one week with the purpose of curbing further violence, illegal rallies, and public disturbance throughout the Philippines. The police and the military dispersed demonstrators and protesters, especially those along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA). Aside from General Lim, prominent personalities were also arrested in connection with their alleged participation in the attempt to overthrow the government. Among those arrested were: 1. Col. Ariel Querubín – leader of a group of Philippine Marines who engaged the government in a political stand-off at Fort Bonifacio on February 25, 2005 2. Randy David – led a protest rally without securing the necessary permit 3. Crispin Beltran – party-list representative of Anakpawis charged with inciting to sedition and rebellion 4. Batasan Five – party-list representatives charged with rebellion and were placed under the custody of the House of Representatives;Bayan Muna's Teodoro Casiño, Satur Ocampo, and Joel Virador; Gabriela's Liza Maza, and Anakpawis' Rafael Mariano

PP 1017 was lifted on March 3, 2006 but members of the opposition, private lawyers, and concerned citizens challenged its constitutionality before the Supreme Court. On May 4, the high court declared the proclamation constitutional. However, it also said that it was illegal for the government to implement warrantless arrests and seize private institutions and companies. 2007 Midterm Elections

Main article: Philippine general election, 2007
Legislative and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 14, 2007. Positions contested included half the seats in the Senate, which are elected for six-year terms, and all the seats in the House of Representatives, who were elected for three-year terms. The duly elected legislators of the 2007 elections joined the elected senators of the 2004 elections to comprise the 14th Congress of the Philippines. Most representatives won seats by being elected directly, the constituency being a geographical district of about 250,000 voters. There are 220 seats in total for all the legislative districts. Some representatives were elected under a party-list system. Only parties representing marginalized groups were allowed to run in the party-list election. To gain one seat, a party must win 2% of the vote. No party-list party may have more than 3 seats. After the election, in a controversial decision, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) changed how it allocates the party-list seats. Under the new formula only one party will have the maximum 3 seats. It based its decision on a formula contained in a Supreme Court decision. Local elections for governor, vice governor, provincial board seats and mayoral, vice mayoral and city/municipal council seats in Metro Manila and the provinces are up for grabs as well. Arroyo's coalition won 3 senate seats and 123 seats in the house.

The Manila Peninsula Rebellion
Main article: Manila Peninsula rebellion
The Peninsula Manila Rebellion was a rebellion in the Philippines on November 29, 2007. Detained Senator Antonio Trillanes IV, General Lim and other Magdalo (mutineers) officials walked out of their trial and marched through the streets of Makati City, called for the ouster of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, and seized the second floor of The Peninsula Manila Hotel along Ayala Avenue. Former Vice-PresidentTeofisto Guingona also joined the march to the hotel. Sen. Antonio Trillanes IV and Brigadier Gen. Danilo Lim surrendered to authorities after an armored personnel carrier rammed into the lobby of the hotel.[18] Director Geary Barias declared that the standoff at the Manila Peninsula Hotel is over as Sen. Antonio Trillanes IV, Brig. Gen. Danilo Lim along with other junior officers agreed to leave the hotel and surrender to Barias after the 6 hour siege.[19] There was difficulty getting out for a while due to the tear gas that was covering the area where they were hiding. Days after the mutiny, the Makati City Regional Trial Court dismissed the rebellion charges against all the 14 civilians involved in the siege, and ordered their release.

Impeachment complaints

In 2005,2006, 2007 and 2008, impeachment complaints were filed against President Arroyo although none of the cases reached the required endorsement of 1/3 of the members for transmittal to and trial by the Senate. On October 13, 2008, the 4th 97-page impeachment complaint against President Arroyo was filed at the House of Representatives of the Philippines with the required endorsements by Party list Representatives Satur Ocampo, Teodoro Casiño and Liza Maza. The complaint accuses Arroyo of corruption, extrajudicial killings, torture and illegal arrests. The impeachment further raised the issues on "national broadband network agreement with China, human rights violations, the Northrail project, the Mt. Diwalwal project, fertilizer fund scam, alleged bribery of members of the House, the swine scam under the Rural Credit Guarantee Corporation, and 2004 electoral fraud." The opposition complainants were Edita Burgos, Iloilo Vice Governor Rolex Suplico, Jose de Venecia III, Harry Roque, Armando Albarillo, a human rights victim, Roneo Clamor, Karapatan deputy secretary general, Josefina Lichauco, and representatives from civil society - Renato Constantino, Jr., Henri Kahn, Francisco Alcuaz, Rez Cortez, Virgilio Eustaquio, Jose Luis Alcuaz, Leah Navarro, Danilo Ramos, Concepcion Empeño, Elmer Labog, Armando Albarillo, Roneo Clamor, and Bebu Bulchand. The justice committee has 60 days to rule upon the complaint's sufficiency in form and substance. However, the opposition has only 28 House seats.

Under Sections 2 and 3, Article XI, Constitution of the Philippines, the House of Representatives of the Philippines has the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against, the President, Vice President, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Constitutional Commissions (Commission on Elections, Commission on Audit), and the Ombudsman. When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate of the Philippines which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, on the impeachment case.[25]

Estrada pardon

On October 25, 2007, Arroyo granted a pardon to Joseph Estrada, supposedly based on the recommendation by the Department of Justice. Press Secretary Ignacio Bunye quoted the signed Order: "In view hereof in pursuant of the authority conferred upon me by the Constitution, I hereby grant Executive clemency to Joseph Ejercito Estrada, convicted by the Sandiganbayan of plunder and imposed a penalty of reclusion perpetua. He is hereby restored to his civil and political rights." Bunye noted that Estrada committed in his application not to seek public office, and he would be free from his Tanay resthouse on October 26, noon.[26][27][28] Accordingly, Justice Secretary Raul Gonzales categorically stated in 2008 that an Estrada plan to run for president in the scheduled 2010 elections is unconstitutional. Estrada, however, disagrees, saying that he is eligible to run for president again, based on the legal advice he gets from former Supreme Court Chief Justice Andres Narvasa.[29]

Martial Law
Main article: Maguindanao massacre
In the wake of the massacre of 57 people in Ampatuan town, President Arroyo placed Maguindanao under a state of martial law, Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita announced on the morning of December 5, 2009. In so doing, Malacañang has suspended the writ of habeas corpus in the province except "for certain areas," enabling the military to make arrests without court intervention. This constitutes the first declaration of martial law in the Philippines since 1972, when then-president Ferdinand Marcos imposed military rule over the entire country.[30][31] Congressional bid in Pampanga

Main article: Philippine House of Representatives elections, 2010 On November 30, 2009, after much speculation, President Arroyo announced on the Philippine Broadcasting Service her congressional bid for the second district of Pampanga.[32] On December 1, 2009, she filed her candidacy under the Lakas-Kampi-CMD.[33]

Charter Change
Arroyo currently spearheads a controversial plan for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present unitary and presidential republic with a bicameral legislature into a federal parliamentary government with a unicameral legislature.

Economy
Main article: Presidency_of_Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo#Economy Arroyo, who earned a master's degree and doctorate in economics, made the Philippine economy the focus of her presidency. Annual economic growth in the Philippines averaged 4.5% during the Arroyo administration, expanding every quarter of her presidency.[12] This is higher than in the administrations of her three immediate predecessors, Corazon Aquino (3.8%), Fidel Ramos (3.7%), and Joseph Estrada(3.7%).[13] The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007, with real GDP growth exceeding 7%.[14] The economy was one of the few to avoid contraction during the 2008 global financial crisis, faring better than its regional peers due to minimal exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from four-to five-million overseas Filipino workers, and a growing business process outsourcing industry.[12] Arroyo's handling of the economy has earned praise from former US President Bill Clinton, who cited her "tough decisions" that put the Philippine economy back in shape.[15] Despite this growth, the poverty rate remained stagnant due to a high population growth rate and uneven distribution of income. A controversial expanded value added tax (e-VAT) law, considered the centerpiece of the Arroyo administration's economic reform agenda, was implemented in November 2005, aiming to complement revenue-raising efforts that could plug the country's large budget deficit.[16] Her administration originally set a target to balance the national budget by 2010, t. The tax measure boosted confidence in the government's fiscal capacity and helped to strengthen the Philippine peso, making it East Asia's best performing currency in 2005–06.[17] The peso strengthened by nearly 20% in 2007, making it by far Asia's best performing currency for the year, a fact attributed to a combination of increased remittances from overseas Filipino workers and a strong domestic economy.[18] Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a controversial policy of holiday economics, adjusting holidays to form longer weekends with the purpose of boosting domestic tourism and allowing Filipinos more time with their families.[19] Domestic policies

Main article: Presidency_of_Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo#Domestic_policies Foreign policies
Main article: Presidency_of_Gloria_Macapagal-Arroyo#Foreign_Policies Public perception

Social Weather Stations quarterly public opinion polling of the net satisfaction rating of President Arroyo. The Social Weather Stations public opinion group has conducted quarterly surveys tracking the net satisfaction rating ("satisfied" rating minus "dissatisfied" rating") of President Arroyo. She began her presidency in the first quarter of 2001 with a net satisfaction rating of +24. Her rating first dipped into the negative in the first quarter of 2003, making Arroyo the only president to achieve a negative net satisfaction rating in SWS opinion polling. Her rating rebounded well into the positive in 2004, in time for the presidential election where she won election to a new six-year term. However, net satisfaction sunk back into negative territory in the fourth quarter of 2004, and has remained negative since, dipping as low as −38 in the second quarter of 2008. Her net satisfaction rating in the first quarter of 2009 was −32.[20] -------------------------------------------------

Post-presidency
House of Representatives
In November 2009, Arroyo formally declared her intention to run for a seat in the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District ofPampanga, making her the second Philippine President – after Jose P. Laurel – to pursue a lower office after the expiration of their presidency.[21] A petition seeking to disqualify Arroyo from the race was dismissed by the Comelec for lack of merit, a decision which was later affirmed by the Supreme Court.[22] With little serious competition, she was elected to congress in May 2010 with a landslide victory.[23]After receiving final military honors at the inauguration ceremony of incoming President Benigno Aquino III, she headed straight to Pampanga for her own oath-taking as congresswoman. Despite being considered the strongest contender for Speaker of the House, Arroyo declined to seek the position, hoping instead to take on a role similar to Sonia Gandhi, who was influential as merely the head of her party. On her first day as a lawmaker, Arroyo and her son Dato filed a resolution calling for Congress to call a constitutional convention to propose amendments to the existing constitution. Arrest

Arroyo was arrested on November 18, 2011 after a Pasay court issued a warrant of arrest against her, following the filing of a complaint for electoral sabotage by the Commission on Elections.[27] The arrest warrant was served at a St. Luke's Medical Center at Taguig where Arroyo had been confined. Days earlier, the Supreme Court had issued a Resolution enjoining attempts by the Department of Justice to prevent her departure from the Philippines to seek medical treatment overseas.  -------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Scouting
Arroyo is the Chief Girl Scout of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines. -------------------------------------------------
Health
On July 3, 2009, it was announced that Arroyo had undergone a biopsy to examine lumps discovered in her breast and groin. Press Secretary Cerge Remonde stated that the results of the biopsy were negativeRemonde also denied reports published in the July 3, 2009 editions of the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Star that Arroyo had undergone surgery for the removal or repair of breast silicone implants.

In early 2011 she was diagnosed with cervical spondylosis or cervical radiculopathy. She was rushed to the St. Luke's Medical Center in Global City Taguig July 25, 2011, minutes after State of the Nation Address Benigno Aquino III. The doctor decided a 5 hour spine surgery on June 29, 2011[36] Two more surgeries in August 2011 which aggravates her hypoparathyroidism. The House of Representatives under the leadership of Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. issued the travel permit allowing her to have treatment in Germany despite of Department of Justice hold departure order.

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