Food security in Vietnam

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Chapter 4: Food security in Vietnam

Vietnam has been the second or third leading rice exporting country, food security is still an issue that need to be considered, not only at national level but also household and individual levels. At the national level, Vietnam has been trying to develop its agriculture to meet the objective of food security since food security is recognized as an important issue in terms of economics, politics and society as a whole (Ngai, 2010, p.1). The government always confirms that “food security must be part of social –economic development general strategy” in order to eliminate hunger, reduce poverty level, create job opportunities with higher income for residents in rural areas (Vietnamese Government, 2009, p.1) Achieved food security is one of the most important conditions for stabilized politics and enhancing social welfare, especially for poor residents. However, food security policies (rice land policy and rice export restrictions) implemented in Vietnam also negatively impacts on agricultural development and the economy as a whole.
4.1.1. Food security achievement
Vietnam has 33 million ha of land, of which rice occupies about 4 million ha. Rice is the main food of the Vietnamese people providing 80% of the carbohydrates and 40% of the protein intake in the diet (Thang, 2014). Along with the economic reform and high economic growth, rice production has increased rapidly. The table 4.1 shows that total rice cultivated acreage has increased steadily (from 6.04 million ha in 1990 to 7.8 million ha in 2013) and the total output in ten year 2003 -2013 has increased by 27.92% with over 6.57 million tons. Therefore, rice production not only provides enough for domestic demand but also surpluses for export. Rice export reached its peak in 2011 with nearly 7.71 million tons. Since 1989, Vietnam has firmly obtained its food security at the national level. Export growth has been achieved without compromising food security. In fact, net



References: Hoa, H.D., Tram, L.T.Q., Nghia, P.D., & McPherson. (2012). Vietnam needs to change the approach to food security? Retrieved from http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/special-reports/52232/vietnam-needs-to-change-the-approach-to-food-security-.html Thao, H.T.L., Mai. H.P., Duc. T.H., Van, P, T.C., Hoa, D.T., Anh, L.N., & Tam, N.T. (2013).Food Security among Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: A Case Study on Coping with Food Shortage among the Hmong people in Sa Phin and Ta Phin Communes, Dong Van District, Ha Giang Province, Vietnam. Retrieved from http://www2.pids.gov.ph/eadn/working%20papers/WP_66_Thao.pdf Ngai, N, V. (2010). Food security and economic development in Vietnam. Retrieved from http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/InterConf/paper/paperpdf1_470.pdf Vietnamese Government. (2009).Resolution on national food security. Retrieved from http://www.isgmard.org.vn/VHDocs/NationalPrograms/Resolution%2063_Food%20security_EN.pDF Thang, T.C. (2014). Food security policies of Vietnam. Retrieved from http://ap.fftc.agnet.org/ap_db.php?id=212 Kien, N.T.(2013) Food security in Vietnam: Situation and policy options. Retrieved from https://www.adelaide.edu.au/global-food/documents/food-security-in-vietnam-medan-dialogue.pdf Vietnam rice policy. (2014). Retrieved from http://penhpal.com/2014/05/vietnams-rice-policy-undermines-poverty-reduction/

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