Food insecurity and malnutrition
Generally, food security mean that food was adequate and available for people. In past many years, there were existing many definitions for food security. However, the concept of food security was hard to definite because it was affected by some complicated problems and many different associated aspects (McDonald, 2010). For recently, the definition for food security was that it was not only need the adequate food supply for people, but just it was providing the sufficient nutritional food for people good health life (Shaw, 2007; Barrett, 2010). It was ensure that sufficient food was accessed and remained for people in every country, which was an important challenge for food security and stability. Recently, there still some problems were affecting food security around world such as food price increasing, natural disaster, population increasing and climate change and global financial crisis (McDonald, 2010). These increasing problems result in food insecurity. Hence that the significant increasing malnourished people become a key issue in food insecurity, malnutrition was a complicated problem in worldwide which included micronutrient deficient (people cannot intake appropriate amount vitamins and minerals), and also the overweight and obese. Therefore, malnutrition has impacted on people health, for example, it caused that some ill, diseases, poverty and damage the economic growth and so forth (McDonald, 2010). Furthermore, there were around 840 million malnutrition people in the world, and including 799 million people come from developing countries which located in Africa and Asia((Pinstrup-Andersen and Watson, 2011) . Also, around 60% of children died due to chronic hunger and malnutrition in many developing countries.
Even the governments and communities are trying to reduce food insecurity in the world. However, food insecurity and malnutrition exited widely in the global south. The reasons of food insecurity has varied from unstable political issue, war, environmental change and poverty. (Smith, El Obeid and Jensen, 2000). However, the root reasons for food insecurity was poverty. Poverty can result the gap between supply and demand. And also food shortage always occurs in the global south. Poverty and food shortage have accelerated the food insecurity. Poverty has also decreased the food productivity, because it has constrained that people’s farm households were invested in the productive technologies and assets. Therefore, poverty resulted the agricultural productivity decreasing (Fosu, 2009). Moreover, poverty has accompanied with many other factors such as war or conflicts, diseases and environment or climate change. For example, war and conflicts were threat the food security in the some Asia area and east Africa. In the conflict area, people had fight for water, natural resources, and livestock in order to result people displacement, broken the transportation and market. Hence that it obvious reduced the asses to food (Fosu, 2009). In addition, due to the terrible natural climate change, which has caused widely food insecurity. Severe disaster For example, the agriculture production in Africa has always threaten by severe weather change such as prolonged drought and floods. The climatological disasters has significant affected food production resulting in food shortage in developing countries. For instance, due to the food shortage in west Africa and south Africa, there were around 10 thousands people died(World development indicators, 2003). The global food production cannot catch up with the increasing population in world. Therefore, the increasing population and rising food price both caused food insecurity as well. Again，some other issues have effects on food security. The level of education, land rights, gender and social environment all these affect the food security. For example, the level of hunger in some poor countries can be...
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