Food Security

Topics: Food security, Agriculture, Poverty Pages: 35 (12318 words) Published: June 23, 2013
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Food security
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Growth in food production has been greater than population growth. Food per person increased during the 1961–2005 period. The y-axis is percent of 1999–2001 average food production per capita. Data source: World Resources Institute.  

Humans are using an increasing amount of Earth’s annual production of plants.

Barley is a major animal feed crop.

A 'Extreme' food insecurity map for 2010 as according tohttp://maplecroft.com/about/news/food-security.html. Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation.[1] The USDA estimates the nearly 9 out of 10 U.S households were food secure throughout 2005. It is a measure of resilience to future disruption or unavailability of critical food supply due to various risk factors including droughts, shipping disruptions, fuel shortages, economic instability, wars, etc. Food security assessment is divided into the self-sufficiency rate (S) and external dependency rate (1-S) as this divides the largest set of risk factors. Although countries may desire a high self-sufficiency rate to avoid transport risks, this may be difficult to achieve especially for wealthy countries, generally due to higher regional production costs.[2] Conversely, high self-sufficiency without economic means leaves countries vulnerable to production risks. The World Health Organization defines three facets of food security: food availability, food access, and food use. Food availability is having available sufficient quantities of food on a consistent basis. Food access is having sufficient resources, both economic and physical, to obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Food use is the appropriate use based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation. The FAOadds a fourth facet: the stability of the first three dimensions of food security over time.[1] Contents  [hide]  * 1 Food production increases * 2 Stunting and chronic nutritional deficiencies * 3 Challenges to achieving food security * 3.1 The agriculture-hunger-poverty nexus * 3.1.1 Improving agricultural productivity to benefit the rural poor * 3.2 Global water crisis * 3.3 Land degradation * 3.4 Land deals * 3.5 Climate change * 3.5.1 Agriculture * 3.6 Agricultural diseases (e.g. wheat stem rust) * 3.7 Biotechnology for smallholders in the (sub)tropics * 3.8 Dictatorship and kleptocracy * 3.9 Children and food security * 3.10 Gender and food security * 3.11 Barriers to gendered food security * 3.11.1 Land rights and inheritance * 3.11.2 Division of unpaid labor and time constraints * 3.11.3 Crop types * 3.11.4 Access to credit, technology, education, markets, and government services * 3.12 Gender and global food security policy * 3.12.1 Proposed policies * 3.12.2 Women's empowerment in agriculture index * 4 Economic approaches * 4.1 Westernized view * 4.2 Food justice * 4.3 Food sovereignty * 5 World Summit on Food Security * 6 Role of the World Bank * 7 Risks to food security * 7.1 Population growth * 7.2 Fossil fuel dependence * 7.3 Hybridization, genetic engineering and loss of biodiversity * 7.4 Intellectual property rights * 7.5 Price setting * 7.6 Treating food the same as other internationally traded commodities * 8 See also *...

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