October 31, 2014
I.S.U. Literature Review
Fluoridation of Your Drinking Water
Drinking water fluoridation is mandated and controlled by the municipality you live in for tooth health. 1) Should it be mandatory or a choice?
Fluoride has been added to public drinking water supplies around the world for more than half a century, and is well-supported by scientific evidence. In Canada, most people are exposed to fluorides on a daily basic, through the trace amounts that are found in not only consuming foods but also drinking fluoridated water. Fluorides protect tooth enamel against the acids that cause tooth decay. Many studies have shown that drinking fluoridated water significantly reduces the number of cavities in children's teeth. Many communities in Canada added fluoride to the local water supply known as water fluoridation. About 45 per cent of Canadians receive fluoridated water. 2) What is the chemistry behind water fluoridation? Is it effective? Fluoride is the name given to a group of compounds that are composed of the naturally occurring element fluorine and one or more other elements. Fluoride is a natural element that is found in soil, water at various levels. People can also get fluoride from food and dental products like toothpaste or mouthwash. In the 1940s, scientists discovered that people who lived where drinking water supplies had naturally occurring fluoride levels of approximately 1 part fluoride per million parts water or greater (>1.0 ppm) had fewer dental caries (cavities) than people who lived where fluoride levels in drinking water were lower. Many more recent studies have supported this finding (1). It was subsequently found that fluoride can prevent and even reverse tooth decay by inhibiting bacteria that produce acid in the mouth and by enhancing remineralization, the process through which tooth enamel is “rebuilt” after it begins to decay (1,2). Water fluoridation is the process of adding...
References: 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Service reported on fluoride benefits and risks. JAMA 1991; 266(8):1061–1067.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1999; 48(41):933–940.
3. Health Care (June 24 2011). Fluoride in Drinking Water, In Health Canada. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/water-eau/drink-potab/health-sante/faq_fluoride-fluorure-eng.php (Retrieved on October 25, 2014).
4. Hc-sc.gc.ca. Oral Health Statistics 2007-2009 - Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS)- Health Canada [Internet]. 2014 [cited 31 October 2014]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/pubs/oral-bucco/fact-fiche-oral-bucco-stat-eng.php (Retrieved on October 25, 2014)
5. .Hc-sc.gc.ca. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document - Fluoride [2011 Health Canada] [Internet]. 2014 [cited 31 October 2014]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/2011-fluoride-fluorure/index-eng.php(Retrieved on October 25, 2014)
6. Ada.org. [Internet]. 2014 [cited 31 October 2014]. Available from: http://www.ada.org/~/media/ADA/Member%20Center/FIles/fluoridation_facts.ashx
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