Flashcards for Psychology Chpt 6&7

Topics: Emotion, Psychology, Motivation Pages: 9 (3251 words) Published: October 29, 2014

Chapter 6 Motivation
-the forces that activate and direct behavior
-a complex internal state that involves physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components 6.2
-reinforcements and punishments, external forces that act on our behavior Reinforcement -ability of an object or action to make the actions that preceded it more likely to happen in the future Punishment

-event that makes the actions that preceded it less likely to happen in the future Quantity and quality
-amount and type of reinforcement and punishment, important determinants of motivation Instincts -behaviors that do not require previous experience or learning Ethology -field that seeks to study the behavior of animals in their natural habitat Evolutionary psychology

-branch of psychology that seeks to explain behavior in terms of its function Unlearned behaviors -behaviors that are apparent from a very early age onwards and require very little experience to emerge Modal action patterns -behaviors that occur in the same fashion, time and time again, and are present in nearly every individual Drives

-a central concept in motivation, internal forces that provide us with the energy and intensity to regain homeostasis Drive reduction -occurs after we begin to reduce a need, when we begin to feel better Arousal

-the level of alertness or sleepiness we feel at any given moment Sympathetic nervous system
-part of the nervous system that responds when threat is present, dual action of suppressing some activities while enhancing others Arousal homeostasis -idea that we all strive to be at our optimal level of arousal Reticular formation -part of the brain located in the brain stem, regulates brain’s ability to regulate all levels of arousal Yerkes-Dodson arousal curve

-theory that describes the relationship between arousal and performance as an inverted-U-shaped curve 6.3 Homeostasis
-fundamental concept of both physiology and behavior, that there’s an optimal level for something Internal signals
-Person cues of hunger and satiety that regulate our eating behavior Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
-chemical signal involved in regulating eating behavior, released by the hypothalamus, increased levels stimulate appetite. Research shows that injection into the brain results in intense eating behaviors. Gherlin-chemical signal involved in regulating eating behavior, released by the lining of the stomach to stimulate appetite Energy balance -ability to eat a sufficient amount of food to engage in all activities that cost energy Cholecystokinin (CCK)

-chemical signal involved in regulating eating behavior, released by the small intestine into the bloodstream, increased levels suppress appetite Satiety -state of feeling full Hunger
-state of feeling hungry
-chemical signal involved in regulating eating behavior, allows cells to take up sugar, increased levels suppress appetite Leptin -chemical signal involved in regulating eating behavior, released by fat cells, increased levels suppress appetite Short and long term weight regulation -over time, your body seeks to consume the right amount of energy to maintain your weight at its set point Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

-energy we consume when at rest Set point
-the body weight, or fat level, that each of us seeks to maintain Hypothalamus -small brain structure, most important overall regulator of our eating behavior Psychological needs
- according to Maslow, love/belonging and esteem Maslow’s hierarchy of needs -description of needs as a progression, with basic physiological needs at the foundation and more complex psychological needs at the top Primary reinforcements -biological reinforcers, such as food, water, sex, temperature, and air Intrinsic motivation

- behavior driven by desires that are inside ourselves Extroverts -people who derive energy from relationships Achievement
-(need for) mastery of a skill or significant accomplishment Extrinsic motivation
- behavior directed toward...
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