Student ID: 16022624
Course coordinator: Sharon Croxford
DRYING AND FREEZING – TWO WAYS IN PRESERVING FISH
Word count: 694
(minus in-text references: 600 (-94))
Date of Submission: 11/4/2013
Good ways to preserve fish has always been sought after since fish is a good source of animal protein yet highly perishable. The process development and its impact on food choices are further understood by looking at two methods in preserving: drying and freezing.
Preserving fish by drying is basically moisture being removed by heat (Brown, 2011; Wahlqvist, 2011) where remaining water is usually not enough to sustain growth and development of microorganism (Murano, 2003; Wahlqvist, 2011). There are various techniques: sun drying allows evaporation by heat from sun while fish is laid out in open air (Brown, 2011; Bala & Mondol, 2001); wind drying evaporates moisture slowly as fish is hung up in cool climates (Valdirmarsson & Gudbjornsdottir, 1984). Solar-drying is an expansion of sun drying that enables shorter drying-time (Bala & Mondol, 2001). Commercial drying has developed faster but also safer drying techniques with greater control over how much and how fast water is being removed (Wahlqvist, 2011). Important types include vacuum, osmotic, and freeze-drying (Brown, 2011). Food factories finalises their products with specialised packaging that limit moisture-absorption from air (Wahlqvist, 2011). Freeze-drying effectively removes water from food when frozen, usually under vacuum, where formed ice crystals evaporates in a process called sublimation (Brown, 2011).
Most food-born microorganism does not grow below 5°C therefore rapid cooling is crucial in preserving fresh fish (Murano, 2011; Brown, 2011). Fresh caught fish is to be kept cool (Brown, 2011; Wahlqvist, 2011) and frozen to -30°C within two hours of capture (Murano, 2011), opting for rapid temperature decline since smaller...
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Bala, B. K., & Mondol, M. R. A. (2001). Experimental investigation on solar drying fish using solar tunnel dryer. Drying Technology, 19(2), 427-436. doi:org/10.1081/DRT-100102915
Brown, A. (2011). Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation (4th ed). Wadsworth, USA: Cengage Learning.
Huang, Y., Liu, K., Hsieh, H., Hsieh C., Hwang, D., & Tsai, Y. (2010). Histamine level and histamine-forming bacteria in dried fish products sold in Pengshu Island of Taiwan. Food Control, 21, 1234-1239. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.02.008
Kiple, K. F., & Ornelas, K. C. (2000). The Cambridge World History of Food. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Murano, P. S. (2003). Understanding Food Science and Technology. Wadsworth, USA: Cengage Learning.
National Center for Home Food Preservation (NCHFP) (2002). Historical Origins of Food Preservation. Retrieved from http://nchfp.uga.edu/publications/nchfp/factsheets/food_pres_hist.html
Valdirmarsson, G., & Gudbjornsdottir, B. (1984). The microbiology of stockfish during the drying process. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 57(3), 413-421. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1984.tb01407.x
Wahlqvist, M. L. (2011). Food & Nutrition: Food and Health Systems in Australia and New Zealand (3rd ed.). New South Wales: Allan & Unwin.
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