Describe the common types of fractures
There are two types of fracture called open and closed. A closed fracture is where the skin is unbroken, but the internal damage to surrounding tissue can be seen as swelling. An open fracture has a wound. The bone may or may not be protruding. There is also internal damage to surrounding tissue.
Describe how to manage a fracture.
A casualty with a fracture needs to keep still and not move the injured part. The treatment for a closed fracture is to reduce the risk of further injury by preventing the casualty from moving the fracture and to get medical help. You need to: 1.
Support the injured limb
Immobilise the affected part
Dial 999 or 112 for an ambulance
Treat for shock.
The treatment for an open fracture is to prevent blood loss and movement at the site of the fracture and to get medical help. You need to: 1.
Control the bleeding without pressing on ant protruding bones. Protect the injury from infection. 2.
Support and immobilise the limb.
Dial 999 or 112 for an ambulance.
Treat for shock.
Wear disposable gloves throughout if possible.
Describe how to manage a dislocation.
A dislocation is an injury in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. The cause is usually trauma resulting from a fall, an auto accident or a collision during contact or high-speed sports. In adults, the most common site of dislocation is the shoulder. In children, it's the elbow. Dislocation usually involves the body's larger joints. Because of its position on the hand, however, your thumb is also vulnerable if forcibly bent the wrong way. The injury will temporarily deform and immobilize your joint and may result in sudden and severe pain and swelling. A dislocation requires prompt medical attention to return your bones to their proper positions. If you believe you have dislocated a joint:
Don't delay medical care. Get medical help immediately.
Don't move the joint. Until you receive help, splint the affected joint into its fixed position. Don't try to move a dislocated joint or force it back into place. This can damage the joint and its surrounding muscles, ligaments, nerves or blood vessels. 3.
Put ice on the injured joint. This can help reduce swelling by controlling internal bleeding and the build-up of fluids in and around the injured joint.
Describe how to recognise and manage head injuries
Any head injury must be treated seriously as it is potentially life threatening and can cause impaired consciousness. A head injury can result in: •
Damage to the brain tissue
Damage to blood vessels inside the skull
A fracture to one of the bones in the skull
Always assume that a casualty with a head injury also has a neck injury and treat accordingly. You can recognise a head injury by: •
Recent blow to the head
Brief loss of consciousness
Wound to the head
Confusion, memory loss, strange behaviour and nausea
Weakness to a limb
Dizziness, seizures or balance problems
Sight problems, including double vision
Clear fluid or blood leaking for the nose or ear
To treat a conscious casualty you must:
Help the casualty sit down in a comfortable position.
Apply cold compress to the head injury
Monitor the casualty’s level of response and breathing. If they: •
Become drowsy or confused
Experience and worsening headache
Develop double vision
Dial 999 or 112 for an ambulance and be prepared to perform CPR. Always advise the casualty to seek medical advice if there has been no emergency medical help at the incident and not to take alcohol or drugs until they have recovered properly. If they are unconscious:
If the casualty is breathing, maintain and open airway using the jaw thrust technique. 2.
Dial 999nor 112 for an ambulance.
Monitor the casualty’s level...
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