Fingerprint Recognition

Topics: Fingerprint, Biometrics, Fingerprint recognition Pages: 7 (1219 words) Published: August 15, 2013
FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION

Contents
• Fingerprint

• Fingerprint Recognition
• Applications • Advantages • Disadvantages • Fingerprint patterns and features • Techniques used for fingerprint recognition  Hybrid matching technique  Minutiae score matching technique

Fingerprint
• Fingerprints are graphical flow-like ridges present on human fingers.

• It is made of a series of ridges and valleys on the surface of the finger. • Patterns that arise in ridges are known as Minutiae.

FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION
• One of the forms of biometrics used to identify an individual and verify their identity. • It refers to the automated method of verifying a match between two human fingerprints.

• Finger printing takes an image of a person's fingertips and records its characteristics. • Generally the biometric systems operates in two modes:  Verification  Identification

Verification : It validates a person’s identity by comparing captured biometric data with readymade template. Identification : It helps to recognize a person’s identity by performing matches against multiple fingerprint biometric templates.

Applications
COMMERCIAL GOVERNMENT FORENSIC Corpse Identification Criminal Investigation, Terrorist Identification, Parenthood determination, Missing Children, etc. Computer Network Logon, National ID card, Electronic Data Security, Correctional Facilities, E-Commerce, Driver’s License, Internet Access, Social Security, ATM, Credit Card, Welfare Disbursement, Physical Access Control, Border Control, Cellular Phones Passport Control, etc. Personal Digital Assistant, Medical Records, Distance Leaning, etc.

Advantages
1. Has a very high accuracy rate.
2. It is the most economical biometric PC user authentication technique. 3. It is one of the most developed biometrics. 4. Easy to use.

5. Small storage space required
6. Standardized

DISADVANTAGES
1. It may be intrusive for some people. 2. It can make mistakes with the dryness or dirtiness of the finger's skin, as well as with the age of a person.

3. It requires the use of modern computer hardware and software, which can be very expensive. 4. The system may refuse to register an employee's own fingerprint

as valid or incorrectly identifying an unauthorized person.

Fingerprint patterns and features
Patterns:- 3 basic patterns of fingerprint ridges are found: • Arch - ridges enter from one side of the finger, rise in the centre forming an arc, and then exit the other side of the finger • Loop - ridges enter from one side of a finger, form a curve, and tend to exit from the same side they enter. • Whorl - ridges form circularly around a central point on the finger

Arch

Loop

Whorl

Techniques used for fingerprint recognition
1. Hybrid Matching Technique

2. Minutia Score Matching Technique

Hybrid matching technique
• This technique is a hybrid between minutiae and correlation based techniques. • The Hybrid system is based mainly on two techniques: The first one adopts the minutia algorithm and the second adopts

the correlation algorithm.

Structure of the Hybrid system

Feature extraction with minutiae algorithm
The steps required in fingerprint extraction and matching are:

1. Minutiae Extraction
2. Post Processing 3. Matching

1. Minutiae Extraction
• A thinning algorithm is implemented which converts grey images of the fingerprint to skeleton image. • A pixel P is selected. The neighboring pixels are scanned in an anti-clockwise direction. • Minutiae are obtained using the CN (Crossing number) equation.

• After the CN values have been computed, they are classified according to the property of its CN value.

3x3 Neighbourhood of P
P4 P5 P6 P3 P P7 P2 P1 P8

CN 0 1 2 3

Property Isolated Property Ending Point Connective Point Bifurcation Point

4

Crossing Point

2. Post processing
• A combination of two algorithms is used to detect all the false

minutiae points.
• One algorithm...
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