Mr. Lekule, A
I, David Kalonga, declare that this research report is my Original work and that it has not been presented and will not be presented to any other institution for a similar or any other award.
This research report is copyright material protected under the Berne convention, the copyright Act 1999 and other enactments on intellectual property. Except for short extracts in fair dealings with an acknowledgement it may not be reproduced by any means without the written permission of the coordinator of studies on behalf of both the Author and the Institute of Adult Education. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Without the knowledge and inspirations accorded to me by the Almighty God, this work could not have been written. I owe special gratitude to my supervisor Mr. Lekule, Aristarick for accepting to supervise this study. I would like to thank all my lecturers especially Mr. Chaligha the coordinator of the course for his helpful lectures that helped me to realize my dreams. I would also want to thank my lovely wife Flora Nyambe, my son JamesClement, and my young brother Joseph Kalonga for devoting their precious time for me. I thank colleagues, classmates and Institute of Adult Education Students Organization for their contribution towards the completion of this study. I thank my employer Kigoma District Council, for accepting me to go for further studies. May the Almighty God reward all the acknowledged persons abund antly. The completion of this work has been a great contribution of the people whose advises and help have been a success to this work. So I would like to express my sincere appreciation to all people who in one way or another contributed to this research. My sincere appreciation should also be extended to my family, especially my father Mr. Kalonga C.L for his assistance in pursuing my Bachelor Degree course in Adult and Continuing Education at the Institute of Adult Education.
DEDICATION This study is dedicated to my beloved mother Late Margaret David Kahema and my lovely wife Flora David for caring and encouraging me in three years of this course. The study also is dedicated to my son Jamesclement who contributed much me to through joy and laughter for the completion of this course.
The purpose of this study was to invstigateThe Impact of Motivation on Teachers’ performance and the Academic Performance of students: A case study of Mchikichini secondary school, in Mchikichini ward, Ilala district in Dar es Salaam region. The study had 42 respondents. These include 20 teachers, 20 students, 1 district education officer of secondary school. Data were collected through available documents, questionnaire and interview. Data collected were translated into tables reflecting number and percentages. Teacher motivation has become an important issue given their responsibility to impart knowledge and skills to learners. The study revealed that there is a positive correlation was ascertained between the two variables. This means that high teacher morale would lead to high student achievement. The facts, displayed that presently at the researchers school, both teacher morale and student achievement were in fact low, but both appeared to be on an upward trend. Steps taken to improve teacher morale, based on the results, should result in improved student achieve the government initiative of BRN. More over findings revealed that the teachers at Mchikichini secondary school do not have enough inner motivation due to inadequate salary to meet their needs with the increase of the urban cost of living this lead them to perform their work below the standard. In order to improve teacher motivation and performance at work, the study recommended increase in the salary of secondary school teachers to match the increased cost of living, provision of accommodation to teachers, strengthening of supervision as well as instituting awards for good performance, among others. The study ended by presenting the summary of the findings, conclusion of what have seen in this work and recommendation for improvement.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
Certification ………………………………………………………………...……(i) Declaration and Copyright………………………………………………….(ii) Acknowledgement………………………………………………………..……(iii) Dedication………………………………………………………………….....……(iv) Abstract……………………………………………………………………….......…(v) Table of Contents……………………………………………………………..... (vi) List of Tables……………………………………………………………………...(viii) List of Abbreviations…………………………………………………………(ix) CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION
1.0Introduction……………………………………………………………….1 1.1Background of the Study………………………………………………….1 1.2Statement of the Problem ……………..………………………………..... 3 1.3 The Purpose of the Study………………………………………………….4 1.4 Significance of the Study………………………………………………….4 1.5 Scope of the Study……………………………………………………....... 5 1.6Research Questions…………………………………………….............. 5 1.6Definitions of terms……………………………………………………….. 7 1.7Limitations of the Study…………………………………………...............7 1.8Delimitation of the Study………………………………………………….6 CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0Introduction………………………………………………………………..7 2.1 Teachers Morale Affects the Influence Learning and Enhances Student’s Academic Performance……………………………………………………….............................8 2.2The extent to which the teachers are motivated …..........................................11 2.3 The Level of Academic Performance of the Students.....................................22 2.4 Summary of Review Literature............................................................................ 25 CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0Introduction………………………………………………………….....27 3.1Research Design...................................................................................... 27 3.2 Study Areas and its characteristics………………………………….....27 3.3Population …………………………………………….......................28 3.4 The Sample and Sampling Procedure………………………………..28 3.5Data Collection Instruments………………………………………..30
3.5.3Focus Group Discussion ……………………………………………………30 3.5.4 Documentations..............................................................................................31 3.6Data Analysis Plan………………………………………………….………31 3.7 Validation of the Instruments.........................................................................31
CHAPTER FOUR:RESEARCH FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………............32 4.2Teacher’s morale affects the performance of students in schools…………32 4.3The extent of poor motivation among teachers in Tanzania......................... 40 4.4Poor motivation and incentives affect teacher performance and the overall effectiveness of national education systems.............................. 43 CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………….50 5.1Summary of the findings ……………………………………………….50 5.2Conclusions…………………………………………………………….50
5.3 Recommendations………………………………………………………53 5.4 Areas for Further Research....................................................................... 54
BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………37APPENDICES………………………………………………………39 LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Categories of Respondents…… ……………….............………….. 28 Table 4.1:Education Level of Teacher Mchikichini Secondary School...…….. 33 Table 4.2:Length of Employment and Motivation for Teacher…………………33 Table 4 .3 :Motivation for Joining Teaching Profession .....................………….. 34 Table 4.4 : Relationship between Teacher Morale and Student Achievement on the End of Terminal Examination………………………………..........................................….. 38 Table 4.5 CSEE Examination Results..............................................................................38 Table 4.6: The Problem of Poor Motivation among Teachers in Tanzania.....................41
Table 4.7: Extrinsic Motivators of Teachers....................................................................45
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
BRN: Big Results Now
CSEE Certificate of Secondary Education Examination EFA: Education for All
MEO: Municipal Education Officer
MOEVT: Ministry of Education and Culture
NSSF: National Social Security Fund
OPRAS: Open Performance Review Appraisal System PTA: Parents Teachers’ Association SSA: Sub Saharan Africa
SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Scientists SMC: School Management Committee
TTU: Tanzania Teacher Union
UPE: Universal Primary Education
Societies all over the world have used education as an instrument for the achievement of their national interests and objectives. Education is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. It fosters the worth and development of the individual, for the individual’s sake and for the general development of the society (National Education and Training Policy, 1995). All these call for functional education for the promotion of a progressive and united country. Therefore, school programs need to be relevant, practical and comprehensive, while interest and ability should determine the individual’s direction in education. It is only when these 2 factors come together that we can achieve the national’s objectives on education to reach Big Result Now (BRN) of as the slogan to education successful. In Tanzania, for example, in order to achieve the goals and objectives of education, the government set up three (3) levels of education: primary education, secondary education and tertiary education (National Education and Training Policy 1995). For the purpose of this research, the discussion will be limited to secondary education. Major conclusion of the extensive literature on school effectiveness in developed countries is that achieving better learning outcomes depends fundamentally on improvements in teaching. Although there are many other factors that affect learning outcomes, teaching is the main school-level determinant of school performance. Thus, ways to increase teacher motivation and capabilities are central to any systematic attempt to improve learning outcomes. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on what makes the effective teacher. 1.1 Background to the Study
In Tanzania, as elsewhere in the world, universal primary education with acceptable learning outcomes can only be attained if teachers are adequately motivated. Teachers also have a critical role to play in supporting development activities in the wider community. In short, teachers are central to the realisation of ambitious national and international education and poverty reduction goals. However, there are growing concerns that teachers in Tanzania, as in other developing countries, are increasingly de-motivated, which is reflected in deteriorating teaching performance and learning outcomes, The report by the Global Campaign for Education also concludes that “it is evident that in the five years since the Education for All goals were restated at Dakar, improving teacher motivation has still not been sufficiently prioritised as a major concern of national or international policy makers. As a result, teacher motivation and morale remain in a chronic state of decline”. The main reasons for this decline are identified as large class sizes, erosion in the quality of teacher training, the employment of para-teachers, other cost cutting measuresnsuch as multiple shifts, and poor pay (GCE, 2005:1). Teachers complain about the lack of variety and role differentiation in their careers, the limited incentives for them to improve their practice and develop as professionals, and the limited linkages between their performance, teacher compensation and teacher development (IIEP, 2004).. The 1995 Education and Training Policy noted that ‘in Tanzania, teachers have experienced low and irregular salary payments, lack of proper housing, inadequate teaching facilities, low status and limited opportunities for professional development’ (p.31). Poor incentives also mean that far too few qualified and experienced teachers want to work in schools in rural areas where the large majority of the population and the poor live and where primary school enrolment and completion rates are relatively low. A teacher is a critical element in the teaching-learning situation. What he does or does not affect learning in a proud way. Research has shown that the quality of teaching makes considerable difference in students’ learning and performance. This implies that the teacher is a key factor in whether a student learns well or not. Thus for the teacher to be able to transfer knowledge, skills, ideas and skills to the students, he or she must be well motivated. It is therefore in line with this that the researcher intended to examine the impact of teacher’s motivation on student’s performance. The success of any system of education depends to a large extent on the number of teachers, their quality and their devotion to duty and their effectiveness on the job. The teacher has to provide teaching motivation for his/her learner. The learner has to be excited, interested, attentive and eager to participate in the learning activity. Use of positive reinforcement and incentive programming is essential in maintaining teacher’s motivation. The teacher has to be energized before he can take positive steps to impart skill and knowledge into his pupils. Teacher’s motivation refers to what energizes a teacher to behave in a particular way. It is a complex concept that deals with teacher’s wants, needs, aspirations, demands and desires. Teacher’s motivation is central in energizing an individual to seek to teach or remain ready to teach. A motivated teacher strives to put efforts together in the classroom so as to affect the students positively. Thus, staff motivation is a push, a propellant or a force that activates a teacher to teach. This implies that when a teacher is highly motivated it affects the students positively. 1.2 Statement of the Problem
The level of motivation of teachers’ in the teaching job performance is still a debate. While about 40% of the teachers were on the government payroll in 1996, this figure has risen to 85.1% in 2004 (Ward et al, 2006). Government has improved the teachers’ payroll management and made the teacher incentive resources available for increase on the secondary school teachers’ salaries as a way of motivation. Using the School Facilities Grant (SFG), government constructed 87,117 teachers ‘houses at the moment. The unavoidable conclusion from the many literatures is that most schooling systems are faced with what amounts to a teacher motivation crisis, which has far reaching implications for the education Millennium Development Goals for basic education and for development as a whole. It is obvious that professional trained teachers always give in their best in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. However, it is pertinent that teachers’ activities must be compensated or rewarded as an encouragement as well as enabling them to work harder in order to achieve the main objective of teaching and learning. The absence of motivation has a negative effect in the standard of education in the country as the students are being deprived of the needed knowledge because the teachers are to be motivated to impact the needed knowledge. Hence, the problems associated with this negative attitude towards motivation result to this. Despite the above motivational factors, there has been deteriorating standards of professional conduct, including serious misbehaviour (in and outside of work), poor preparation of teaching materials especially lesson notes, lack of continuous pupil assessment and general poor professional performance. It is as a result of this central position of the teacher that it is often said that no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Teacher absenteeism is unacceptably high and rising, time on task is low and falling, and teaching practices are characterized by limited effort with heavy reliance on traditional teacher-centred practices (Ilala Municipal Education Inspection Report, October, 2014). It is such a situation that prompted the researcher to conduct a study to establish the various extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors and how they had affected teachers’ performance in secondary schools in Mchikichini ward. 1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research was to find out the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students. The study specifically intends to; i. Determine the extent to which teacher’s morale affects the influence learning and enhances student’s academic performance. ii. Finding out to what extent the problem of poor motivation among teachers in Tanzania lead to poor performance. iii. Determine how poor motivation and incentives affect teacher performance and the overall effectiveness of national education systems. 1.4 Significance of the Study
It is the researchers hope that the final result of this research work will help in finding possible ways, how motivation can influence productivity/performance in teaching and learning process and also improve learning on the part of students. It is important for the researcher to put into consideration, the significance of teachers’ motivation and academic performance of students’ as follows; 1. When teachers are being motivated, the society/government will benefit immensely in the sense that the teachers put in their best, the students (youth) will contribute properly to the economic growth and development of the nation and the welfare of its citizens. 2. Parents will also benefit when teachers are being motivated in the sense that the students will be responsible to their parents and also the money spent on them will not be in vein because they will help in carrying out families’ responsibilities. 3. Students will benefit equally when teachers are motivated because the research will enable them to enhance and improve their academic performance. 4. The teachers also benefit a lot when they positive motivation is given to them in terms of promotion, fringe benefit, salaries are paid at and when due, they will give in their best in the teaching process. And also their standard of living will improve. 1.5 Scope of the Study
The study covered Mchikichini ward in Ilala Municipal council, Dar es Salaam. Moreover, the scope of this study was limited to find the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students. 1.6 Research Questions
a. To what extent does teacher’s morale affect the performance of students in schools?
What is the level of teacher morale exhibited by the teachers in your school? Why Is Teacher Morale Important?
Is there a relationship between teacher morale and student achievement on the end of end of terminal and annual examination? b. To what extent is there a problem of poor motivation among teachers in Tanzania? Is there a problem of poor motivation among teachers in your school? If so, what are the main reasons for poor teacher motivation? What are the factors that hinder effective teacher’s motivation? What should be done to ensure that teachers are adequately motivated?
c. How poor motivation and incentives affect teacher performance and the overall effectiveness of national education systems? What is the Impact of Motivation on teacher’s Performance? To what extent social-emotional competencies affect teacher’s performance? What should be done to increase level of teacher’s performance? 1.7 Limitations of the Study
The accomplishment of the objectives of this study was not an easy task. The following were problems that the researcher encountered in the course of the study: 1. Some respondents were suspicious as to why the researcher wanted information related to staff motivation and teacher performance in secondary schools in the area. However this limitation was minimized by use of introductory letters by the researcher as well as assuring respondents about the use of the information they provided for only academic purposes. 2. There was also an overlap in advantages and limitations with the methods used for data collection. This relates to the multitude of information generated during the discussion, the additional time required for data collection, the sensitivity of the topic, which limited free expression of views and attitudes and the interaction bias which could have affected some of the responses. The researcher tried to minimize these limitations by rephrasing the questions, cross checking the data collected and continuously explaining the purpose of the study and how the findings were for academic purposes. 4. Due to limited time and resources, this study covered one Ward of Mchikichini. Observation of teaching activities conducted by teachers as well as interaction of teachers with students was not done because data was collected at the time when teachers were invigilating and marking end of term exams. Consequently, other studies in this area may be necessary. 1.8Delimitation of the Study
The study was conducted at Mchikichini ward in Ilala District. This ward contains one secondary school which the researcher uses to find out the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students.
The literature is reviewed according to study objectives that included teacher’s morale affects the influence and enhances student’s academic performance, the effects of intrinsic motivation and performance and extrinsic motivation and performance. Newspaper articles and other media reports regularly highlight the plight of teachers in Tanzania. Numerous official documents over the last decade or so have also increasingly drawn attention to the fragility of teacher motivation in the country. For example, the Report on the Education Sector Towards 2000 notes that ‘since 1962, the different schemes of service for teachers have not reflected due recognition of the heavy demands of society upon teachers nor the crucial contribution of the latter in moulding the future citizens of society. This attitude has greatly discouraged academically able young men and women from enrolling in teacher training courses. Many dedicated teachers have gone to more caring employers’. In a similar vein, the 1990 World Bank report on teachers’ conditions of service concluded that ‘in the absence of incentives to perform better, many teachers are currently providing much less and lower quality education than they are capable of the de-motivation of teachers is a major contributory factor to the abysmally poor learning achievements of primary and secondary students’ (World Bank, 1990, p.10).
2.1 Teachers Morale Affects the Influence Learning and Enhances Student’s Academic Performance. 2.1.1 Teacher Morale
Teachers are being stretched to the limit. Expectations placed on them seem to be expanding exponentially. Increasingly their role encompasses not only teaching specific content and mentoring students in the love of learning, but functioning as frontline social workers. In addition to being expected to deal with a smorgasbord of broader social problems that find their way into the classroom, many other pressures plague teachers, prompting Parks (1983) to ask, "How does one compensate professionals for inadequate books and supplies, large classes, disruptive students, public criticism, limited assistance, increased duties, and the lowest salaries paid to highly educated personnel in the nation? How does one lead a group in which morale is so low that over 40 percent of survey respondents would not again select teaching as a profession and 57 percent are definitely planning to leave, will leave if something better comes along, or are undecided. . Although Parks posed these questions in 1983, it appears that similar levels of dissatisfaction persist among teachers today. For example, a survey of Texas public school teachers in 1996 found that 44 percent of respondents were seriously considering leaving the profession (Henderson, 1996). 2.1.2 What Is Teacher Morale?
Morale has been thought of variously as a feeling, a state of mind, a mental attitude, and an emotional attitude (Mendel, 1987). One source defines morale as the feeling a worker has about his job based on how the worker perceives himself in the organization and the extent to which the organization is viewed as meeting the worker's own needs and expectations (Washington and Watson 1976). Another author conceptualizes morale as "the professional interest and enthusiasm that a person displays towards the achievement of individual and group goals in a given job situation" (Bentley and Rempel 1980). . When a healthy school environment exists and teacher morale is high, "teachers feel good about each other and, at the same time, feel a sense of accomplishment from their jobs" (Hoy and Miskel 1987). 2.1.3 What Are Some Factors that Affect Teacher Morale?
As noted above, a healthy school environment and high teacher morale tend to be related. A principal's ability to create a positive school climate and culture can affect teacher morale. As Adams (1992) states, "Principals, who control many of the contingencies in the work environment and are the source of much reinforcement for teaching behavior, are the keys to improving the morale and self-esteem of teachers." . A recent report on job satisfaction among American teachers identified "more administrative support and leadership, good student behavior, a positive school atmosphere, and teacher autonomy" as working conditions associated with higher teacher satisfaction (National Center for Education Statistics 1997). Favorable workplace conditions were positively related to teacher' job satisfaction regardless of whether a teacher was employed by a public or private school, an elementary or secondary school, and regardless of teachers' background characteristics or school demographics (National Center for Education Statistics). The study also found that "teachers in any school setting who receive a great deal of parental support are more satisfied than teachers who do not." A weak relationship was found between teacher satisfaction and salary and benefits (National Center for Education Statistics). Teachers' perceptions of students and student learning can also affect their morale. In a cross-cultural study of teacher enthusiasm and discouragement that included teachers from the U.S. and six other nations, "Teachers clearly identified students as the primary and central factor that has an impact on both their professional enthusiasm and discouragement.... Teachers almost universally treasure student responsiveness and enthusiasm as a vital factor in their own enthusiasm, and conversely list low motivation in students as a discourager" (Stenlund 1995). Because of their relative isolation from other adults, teachers have little opportunity to share their successes with colleagues and administrators. This results in greater reliance on student responsiveness for teachers' professional satisfaction (Goodwin 1987). . Stress also affects morale. It can "result in emotional and physical fatigue and a reduction in work motivation, involvement, and satisfaction" (Stenlund). Feeling overly stressed can result in erosion of one's idealism, sense of purpose, and enthusiasm. 2.1.4 Why Is Teacher Morale Important?
Miller (1981) notes that teacher morale "can have a positive effect on pupil attitudes and learning. Raising teacher morale level is not only making teaching more pleasant for teachers, but also learning more pleasant for the students. This creates an environment that is more conducive to learning. . Morale and achievement are also related. Ellenberg (1972) found that "where morale was high, schools showed an increase in student achievement." Conversely, low levels of satisfaction and morale can lead to decreased teacher productivity and burnout, which is associated with "a loss of concern for and detachment from the people with whom one works, decreased quality of teaching, depression, greater use of sick leave, efforts to leave the profession, and a cynical and dehumanized perception of students" (Mendel citing Holt 1980). . In short, the morale of teachers can have far-reaching implications for "student learning, the health of the organization, and the health of the teacher" (Mendel). 2.1.5 What Steps Can Teachers Take To Preserve or Raise Their Morale? Sometimes teacher morale drops almost imperceptibly over time, so subtly that teachers may not be fully cognizant of the decline. Nothing can change, however, in the absence of awareness. If teachers to be encouraged, they must first recognize their diminished status that they are "discouraged and take action to become 'couraged' again" (Bolin 1987). . Reassessment, when coupled with renewal, can often lead to encouragement. Reassessment involves reexamining something in order to value it again (Bolin). And renewal "implies recovery. To become renewed, teachers must reopen the case for teaching, looking again at why they chose to set out on such a vocational venture" (Bolin). . Berman (1987) also emphasizes the need for individuals "to give attention to the care and replenishing of self if they are to be dynamic, sensitive, perceptive persons who get excited about ideas and people. Teachers need to be able to keep the freshness and spark that frequently mark a novice in the field, while at the same time embedding freshness in wisdom and thoughtfulness." . Berman advises teachers to consider what is uplifting and energizing for them and then work toward integrating those things more fully into their lives. She suggests breaking out of routines and doing the unusual, planning for next steps in professional development, developing a network of individuals to dialogue with, and investing fully in tasks at hand as routes to replenishment.
2.1.6 How Can Administrators Influence Teacher Morale?
People who feel empowered tend to have higher morale. As Maehr, Midgley, and Urdan (1993) state, "People are more personally invested in their work with an organization when (1) they have a voice in what happens to them; and (2) their work has meaning and significance in contributing to a higher purpose or goal." . The same writers: When teachers' sense of self-determination and purpose are supported, teachers relate to students in a qualitatively different manner. . By treating teachers in ways that empower them, such as involving them in decisions about policies and practices and acknowledging their expertise, administrators can help sustain teacher morale. Principals can also strengthen teacher morale by actively standing behind teachers. Effective principals serve as guardians of teachers' instructional time, "assist teachers with student discipline matters, allow teachers to develop discipline codes, and support teachers' authority in enforcing policy" (Blase and Kirby 1992). . Although teachers can take steps individually to preserve their professional satisfaction and morale, they must also be nurtured, supported, and valued by the broader school community. When teachers are provided with what they need to remain inspired and enthusiastic in the classroom, students as well as teachers will be the beneficiaries. 2.2 The extent to which the teachers are motivated
The most critical finding that emerges from this study is that very sizeable proportions of secondary school teachers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, have low levels of job satisfaction and are poorly motivated. Many tens of millions of children are, therefore, not being taught properly and are not receiving even a minimally acceptable education. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on what makes the ‘effective’ teacher. And yet, the focus to date of policy reform in most countries has been on improving learning outcomes through a better allocation of resources, more accountability, curriculum reforms and refined assessment systems, and better pre-and in-service teacher training. However, the limited impact of many of these interventions has forced politicians and policymakers to focus increasingly on the needs of teachers themselves. The literature on teacher motivation and incentives in developed countries has many common or similar themes with the very much more limited literature on this subject in low-income developing countries. The unavoidable conclusion is that most schooling systems are faced with what amounts to a teacher motivation crisis, which has far reaching implications for the education Millennium Development Goals for basic education and for development as a whole. 2.2.1 Theories of Motivation of Learning Outcome
There is a general agreement among psychologists that with a few exceptions, which will be noted, all behaviours are motivated, people have reasons for doing the things they do and that behaviour is oriented towards meeting certain goals and objectives. That is why Freud (1990) and other psychologists like Taylor (1949) generally agreed that man is motivated by the desire to satisfy a number of needs. Some of which he is not consciously aware of differences of opinions exist as to the nature and relative importance of these needs. This is true because there is no doubt that teachers whose financial needs are not satisfied will be psychologically and socially demoralized in his working attitude and this is of immense effect to the performance of such teachers. But when teachers’ salaries and allowances are paid at and when due, this will reduce the number of teachers truancy which is rampant in the teaching and learning system of secondary schools. Many teachers come into the school only to put his or her name in the attendance register and moves out in pursuit of other business or jobs which will earn him/her a large amount of money to make both ends meet since the salary is small. This attitude makes the students to go home after a whole day with nothing done or either one or two subjects for a day. This lowers the morale of students towards learning. Hence, below come the lists of some theories of motivation. 22.214.171.124 Maslow’s Theory of Motivation
Maslow (1954) came up with the theory of hierarchy of needs. This is based on clinical supervision and logic. In this theory of motivation, he stresses that individuals are motivated to satisfy several different kinds of needs, which are more proponent than others. Maslow’s theory states that if a number of features of a person’s needs are unsatisfied at any given time, satisfaction of the most proponent ones will be more pressing than that of other. So Maslow was on the idea that a satisfied need does not determine behaviour but unsatisfied need. This implies that the teacher’s behaviour in the classroom is a function of his needs. In other words, his needs influence his behaviour in the classroom in no small measure. 126.96.36.199 Victor Vroom’s Theory of Motivation
Victor Vroom (1964) in his own contributions advanced the expectancy valence theory. He stated that if individual worker believes that working hard will lead to salary increase, he will intensify his effort and work hard. The theory recognizes that people act only when they have a reasonable expectation that their actions will lead to a desired goal. Victor Vroom called this “Expectance theory” which places emphasis on performance, nothing that there must be a clearly recognized goal and relationship between performance and outcome. Motivation is a function of the expectancy of attaining a certain outcome in performing a certain act multiplied by the value of the outcome for the performance.
M(f) = ExV
Where M = Motivation
E = Expectancy
V = Value expected.
Expectancy theory has two outcomes. First, outcome that are highly valued, and have high expectations of being realized will direct a person to make a greater effort in his taste. Secondly, outcome with high expectations, which are less highly valued or even dislike will reduce the effort expected. The significance of this theory is that an administration should take cognizance of the relationship of the first and second outcomes and use them to motivate his subordinates. 188.8.131.52 Mc Gregor’s Theory of Motivation
Another human relation theorist Mc Gregor (1960) in his work “the human side of enterprise”, advanced to belief about human behaviour that could be held by different managers. He sees two sets of assumption made by managers about their employees. First is what he calls theory which views man on the following set of principle: Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible. Because of this, human characteristics of dislike of work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the advancement of the organization objectives. The average human being prefers to be diverted, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. The holders of this vie believe that motivation of workers can be attained through authority and fear and that employees have to be closely watched if result must be obtained. In summary, this x side of the theory emphasized control and extrinsic rewards. On the other hand, the second assumption called theory y, sees man in a more favourable light. Here workers under this concept of management posses potential that is generally untapped by most working environments. It has the following assumptions:
The time spent on physical and mental efforts in work is as natural as play or rest. External controls and the threats of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort towards organizational objectives. People will exercise self-direction and self –control in the service of objective to which they are committed. Committed to objective is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. The most important of such rewards is the satisfaction of ego and self-actualization towards organizational objectives. Average human being learns under proper condition not only to accept but also to seek responsibility. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely not narrowly distributed in the population. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human beings are only partially utilized. This theory in summary presents it is aspect of participation and concern for workers morals, encouraged managers to begin to delegate authority for making decisions, enrich or enlarge jobs by making them less respective as the way to motivate employees to higher performance. In conclusion, this theory summarized the employee’s behaviour using the two sides of its X and Y. As it was stated above, the x side of it emphasized control and extrinsic rewards the y side of it emphasized the managerial concern for workers morals and encouraged manager to begin to delegate authority for making decisions enrich or enlarge job by making them less repetitive as the ways to motivate employees to higher performance. The educational implication of this theory is that teachers should always be able to effectively exercise control and proper management of their classroom while they teach students with various teaching methods, considering individual differences among learners, environmental conditions, teaching aids etc which will enhance easier learning. And also, while they do these, they should also externally aid faster learning by the introduction of reinforcement that is giving of rewards to students who perform well in classroom work or examination. 184.108.40.206 Herberg’s Theory of Motivation
Herberg established what he called hygiene or maintenance factors and motivators. According to him, here are certain extrinsic factors which by their presence do not increase the workers satisfaction or the job, but there absence may lead to job dissatisfaction and lower productivity among employees. Such extrinsic job conditions were environmental factors over which the employee has limited influence. They include payment, interpersonal relations, organizational policy and administration, supervision and working conditions. These he called hygiene factors or dissatisfied. The significance of this factor is that is does not only rely on extrinsic rewards for motivating employees for higher production but also incorporates in the job itself those ingredients that could help motivate employees. Though researcher supports Herberg, it is not freed of criticism. Critics argued that how he gathered his data is questionable. However, despite that, Herberg’s theory is in many ways a gross over simplification as various aspects of the motivations theories clearly show in it. It has made major contributions in focusing attention on jobs redesign for the purpose of making the work more intrinsically satisfying. Hence, Herberg’s theory has been found to be applicable in the field of education in the following ways: Motivation is related to leadership, for good leadership sets an example, provides guidance, encouragement and instructions. This can be one of the greatest motivational strategies of all secondary school, which effective principals will use to motivate staff and pupils. Another feature of motivation of teachers is that if teachers are properly motivated, this can change an otherwise mediocre group into a highly productive team. Good motivation of teachers is definitely related to morale. In a large organization, high moral is difficult to attain and motivation of teachers is a prime factor in achieving it. 220.127.116.11 Cognitive – Field Theory of Motivation
This theory was popularized by Kurt Lewin. In an attempt to explain the theory, he proposed certain motivational constructs. These are: TENSION
In an organism, tension is created by disequilibrium within the organism, which the organism wants to release through activities. The activities which help in releasing tension have positive valence and those that have opposite effect have negative valance. Tension induces valence in an organism and valence directs behaviour. Tension continues till the organism attains its goals. NEED
Two types of need were proposed by Lewin. They are genuine need and quasi need. Genuine needs can come from the physiological conditions of the organism such as hunger, thirsty, shelter etc. Quasi need is tension that arises from intentions, acts of will and other arbitrary commitments of the individual. Every organism has a characteristic structure of needs which create tension thereby making the organism to be activated. FORCE AND VALENCE
The desirability of an activity is called valence and the tendency to engage in the act is called force. Valence influences choice while force is more useful for speed or persistence of behaviour. Need gives rise to force signifying a valence activity. If the organism has no need, the environment registers no valence and no force is also generated. In summary, the cognitive field theory of motivation is a direct function of the combinations of tension, need, force and valence. Hence this theory is applicable in the field of education and also to what happens in the life of a teacher. For instance, like one of the motivational constructs “Needs” such as hunger, thirsty, shelter etc. the teacher that is characterized with these problems will not perform well in the classroom and in this case the student’s academic performance will be very low. But when teacher are being motivated such as given housing and transport allowance, when their salaries are paid regularly, when they get car loan and car basic allowance, these will enhance positive attitude towards task and as such improve high performance in the classroom. 18.104.22.168 Importance of Motivation
The term motivation is derived from a Latin word “movers”, which means to move into action. This means that motivation is simply the cause and why of human behaviour. To further-stress on the meaning of motivation, Monday Holmes and Flippo (1980), sees motivation as a process of stimulating an individual to take decision and action in order to achieve a specific desired goal. Morgan, King and Robinson (1984) defined motivation as a state, which individual or animal gingers or derive behaviour towards some specific goals. Furthermore, Herberg (1978) was not far from the perception of motivation from the above view as he defined motivation as the psychological process that arouse, direct and maintain behaviour towards a goal. Hence, going by the definitions of motivation as x-rayed above, one can simply conclude that efficiency, good performance and high productivity is a direct function of adequate motivation on the part of workers in an organization. And when workers were properly motivated, leading to efficiency, good performance and high productivity, the implication of this is sudden and sustained rise in national growth and development and invariably the general improvement in the welfare of the citizens. That is why Mayor studies the work habits of the employees at the Hawttone Western plane in the 1920’s as recorded by Pugh (1990), and discovered that efficiency in the production process and increased output were been realized when employees were being motivated and the reverse is the case when they were not motivated. However, in the field of education, the role of motivation cannot be over emphasized. That is to say that motivation plays a very significant role in attaining the overall educational aims and objectives through teaching and learning process. To further buttress this argument, Ormond (2003) sees motivation as a direct behaviour towards attaining a particular goal. Bandura (1997) stated that the use of model to motivate students is recommended because; students may model after the personalities society approves. Huffman et al (1991) sees motivation as a goal directed behaviour. Steers and Porter (1983) viewed motivation as concerned with how human beings are energized, sustained, directed, stopped and the type of subjective reaction presents in the individual whole as all these processes are taking place. As if these were not enough, Ugwu 1997) still on motivation implies that behaviour has an origin, which terminates when the goal of an individual is achieved. And Ekong (2000) emphatically stated that “to achieve effective performance in the teaching learning process, the teachers as well as the students must be motivated”. The reasons behind this are outlined below:
In the classroom, motivation helps to increase efficiency and adequacy of behaviour. For instance, a motivated child would face his classroom work with zeal and interest. Such a student will always be in school, and carry out the necessary assignment. Motivation of teachers on the other hand, is seen to be working tirelessly in the schools. They prepare their lesson notes at and when due, teaches students, gives assignments, conduct tests, exams and marks, and records them appropriate. Hence, Herzberg (1978) stated that if teachers are properly motivated, this can change an otherwise mediocre group into a highly productive team. Equally, motivation brings about the use good teaching methods in the classroom. This is because; a motivated teacher presents his subjects matter in a variety of ways thereby bringing novelty in his teaching. Example, the use of teaching aids, various illustrations using concrete objects which makes the lesson more interesting, effective and realistic. Motivation also brings competition and increases learning efficiency on the part of the learners. For instance, if the teacher uses positive reinforcement to reward students who answers questions correctly, or who performs highly in tests or examinations, other students who did not perform well will be challenged and hence encouraged to study harder bring about competition in such classroom. 22.214.171.124 Motivational Strategies for Teachers
Studies on motivational strategies on teachers have shown that teachers by some kind of incentives are recognized as being effective. Incentives are often given in the form of money, that is money can be seen as part of the reward system designed to reinforce behaviour and therefore to motivate people to work towards that goals and those of the organization. The realization of the goals and objectives of any establishment or organization largely depends on how the workers perceive and react to their jobs that are attitude which to a great extent determine the output. Without motivation, teacher performance would be highly hindered. The level of motivation of workers will determine the teacher’s response to the organizational rules, responsibilities and opportunities. Smith (1973) conceptualized the economic basis of human motivation. He believes that people work primarily for money and they are motivated to do only that which provide them with the greatest rewards. Apart from the monetary reward as a motivating factor, according to Herzberg (1978), recognition, achievement, responsibility and the challenge of the work it self are vital parts of the reward system that can be offered by the management, as positive motivation irrespective of money. In view of Seligman (1990), motivation is an inner feeling that generates a desire to achieve bigger and better things. Mayo (1970) agrees with Seligman M. when she said that productivity was directly related to job satisfaction, which was derived more from intrinsic factor such as recognition and sense of fulfillment than from extrinsic factors such as pay and working conditions. According to Waitley D. (1996), he observed that apathy and lack of effort are healthy reactions of normal people to an unhealthy industrial situation. He was of the belief that people are naturally motivated to act responsibly, and to be self-reliant and independent. Moreover, Jenis et al (1975), investigated on the effects of persuasive communication which attempts to motivate teachers to conform to a set of recommendations by stimulating fear reactions. In this investigation, 200 sample students were exposed to three varying degrees of fear appeals and the result showed that fear were successful in arousing effective reaction which ascertain that workers perform their task. In educational setting, for administrators to motivate the workers, is that they do these things which they hope will satisfy these desire and induce the employee to act in a desired manner. In an organizational set up like a school, the motivational strategies are concerned with how behaviour gets started. Motivational strategies for teachers as a study where it is applied to staff to discover what prompt people to behave the way they do. Taylor (1949), stressed on the psychological and sociological factors in making a teacher to do his or her job better. For instance, in school, if the principal shows appreciation for a “teacher’s performance” and say to him or her… “You are doing a very good job, thank you” this act alone, makes the teacher feel that his or her contribution is valued and therefore he or she is encouraged to do even more. In this case, the teacher had been psychologically motivated to continue his or her work as efficiently and effectively as possible. Furthermore, if teacher’s hard work is begin considered when giving promotion and other benefits in the educational system, it will make teachers to be working very hard in the school in order to give in their best effectively and efficiently. An administrator who wants efficiency must provide maximum motivation among his teachers and have keen appreciation of teacher’s behaviours. With reference to Festinger (1957), motivation of teachers is very important for the achievement of educational objectives. 126.96.36.199 Problems Affecting Teaching Performance
There are many factors, which affect the teaching performance in our educational system and hence include the following: Inadequate provision of facilities there are inadequate provision o facilities in our schools for effective learning process. According to Ojogan (1997), the television stimulates the illustration of motion. Osanyande (1998) observed that the school environment is no longer what it used to be. He further observed that dilapidated school infrastructures and instructional materials in the schools in the schools have changed the school environment. Ojernido (1998) opined that teachers are ill-equipped to teach the sciences coupled with the chronic problem of lack of motivation. Inadequate provision of fund no programme can be carried out successfully without money. The school just like any other organization needs money. Not just money but sufficient amount in orders to carry out their duties effectively. Since there is insufficiency, in the provision of fund needed by the school administrators to operate and run the school, it will hinder the activities carried out in the classroom. The school needs money for the payment of workers’ salaries, putting up structures for classrooms, offices etc. purchasing of equipments and where the money is inadequately provided, it becomes an obstacle for the school, to the implementation of its programme. Irregular payment of teacher’s salaries or lack of motivation to teachers this is another problem militating against teaching performance. That is, no motivation is given to teachers in terms of promotion, seminars and workshops also, there is irregular payment of their salaries at and when due. These affect the teaching performance and academic performance of the students. Administrative problems the administrative style of the principal effects teaching performance to a large extent. Hence, the administrative style of principal should be democratic, empathy, consultation and goal oriented. But when the administrative style of the principal is very poor, it leads to poor performance of the students in the school. As a result of this, it may lead to low self-esteem. This in turn may lead to truancy and dropping out of the school and the will likely cripple the student’s future as Bowker and klein (1998) noted. The societal view of the teachers the attitude of the society towards the education system is equally hinders the effectiveness of teaching performance in the classroom. The societal view of the teachers is looked down upon and is not pleasant. Wale (1985), said that he loved teaching, derived satisfaction from impacting knowledge to his pupil but what repelled him was out of classroom situation. Also Awaribor (1998). Stressed that the best young people will be attracted to teaching as life line career, if working conditions of the teacher is comparable to those enjoyed by other professional groups. The society do exhibit negative attitudes towards the school, by not showing interest in what goes on in the school and do not care to contribute its own part to the development of the school. They expect the government to do it all. Whenever the communities fail to participate in the affairs of the school, such as financial support, any plan for expansion in the school will not work out as expected. Inadequate supervision in school system this is another problem militating against teaching performance in the school. Supervision is highly dispensable in the school if efficiency and good quality is to be achieved. Ukeje (1992) defined supervision as the process of over-seeing the performance of tasks assigned to an individual, a group or groups of people, with the aim of directing, and controlling it’s execution to a successful outcome. But when there is inadequate of supervision in the school, there will be a setback in the teaching and learning process and hence, the academic performance of the students. Nwaogu (1986) opined that; “supervision of instruction in the school entails the guiding and co-ordination of the work of the teachers and that the learning will be facilitated. Eze (2002), said that in order to achieve possible best result, the school administrators should ensure adequate supervision of the workers (teachers) so as to make sure that the various tasks assigned to them are carried out effectively. Lack of accurate and adequate statistics this also hinders the effective of school administration. The administration sometimes overlook proper record keeping as regards to the resources they manage, both the teachers, students, equipments, finance etc. sometimes, the statistics are being either under-casted or overcastted and this constrains effective planning and implementation of the school plans in the attainment of the school goals and objectives. 2.3 The Level of Academic Performance of the Student
Today it is more crucial than ever that secondary students are academically prepared to compete for knowledge and technology based jobs. When students are not prepared the costs to individuals and society can be extremely high. For example, higher levels of unemployment, lower earnings, and increased health problems have been linked to early withdrawal from school (Jimerson, Egeland, Sroufe, & Carlson, 2000; Reyes, Gillock, Kobus, & Sanchez, 2000; Rums- berger, 1995). The fiscal costs for one city, as the result of students dropping out in only one school district, was estimated at 3.2 billion in lost earnings and 400 million in social service costs (Rumsberger, 1995). Not accounted for in these figures are the costs to an individual’s quality of life (Ellenbogen & Chamberland, 1997). Some of the documented impacts are poor mental health (Reyes et al., 2000) and antisocial behavior (Bullis, Walker, & Sprague, 2001). 2.3.1 The Impact of Motivation on Student Performance
When there is proper motivation, it leads to good performance and high productivity to the sustenance of the national growth and development and also the welfare of the citizens. Hence, the impact of motivation on student’s academic performance cannot be over emphasized, and they are as follows: Motivation help to direct and regulate the child’s behaviour in such a case, the behaviour of such a student is always guided. The behavior is purposeful and persistent. For instance, when a motivated child is given an assignment in the school, he puts every effort to ensure that he gets the assignments correctly. Even when he fails the assignment, he does not get discouraged but rather puts more effort towards the achievement of his goals Omebe (2001). Also, the impact of motivation on students can be seen in the classroom settings. Motivation energizes the behaviour of the students and arouses them for action. Not only the motivation energizes the behaviour, it also sustains their interests and behaviour for a longer period of activity. Motivated state helps to increase efficiency and adequacy of behaviour. For instance, a motivated student faces his class work with zeal and interest. Such student will always be in school and carryout the necessary assignment. Another impact of motivation on student’s performance could be seen in the behaviour of a motivated student which is selective in nature. The behaviour is directed towards a selective goal which the individual sets for himself Eze (2002). In such a situation, the student’s action or behaviour does not move in a haphazard manner instead, it is being directed towards the achievement of a selective goal which the individual sets for himself. Example is when a student is determined to achieve high scores in examination; such a person selects appropriate behaviour such as studying hard, so as to attain his set goals. And the motive ends by the achievement of the goals. Given these social costs, it is somewhat disconcerting to note that there has been an increase in the percentage of US students who do not complete high school. According to the US census bureau in 1990, 11% of all youth between 16 and 24 years of age were not enrolled in school or had not graduated from high school (Rumsberger, 1995). In 1994 the number had increased to 12% Reyes et al.,( 2000). Given the increasing importance of a high school degree, it is not surprising that a sizeable literature has evolved on factors promoting academic success in high school. Early efforts focused on cognitive factors. Since these variables typically account for relatively small amounts of the variability in academic success (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Ransdell, 2001), researchers have become increasingly aware of the need to study a broader range of potential predictors (McLaughlin, Brozovsky, & McLaughlin, 1998). Socioeconomic factors, peer relationships, and the quality of the institution have all been linked with academic success in high school (e.g., Berger & Milem, 1999; Bjarnason, 2000; Newcomb et al., 2002). One new area of recent interest has been the impact of social and emotional competency on academic achievement. Early discussions on the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and achievement in various educational contexts were quick to claim a strong association (e.g., Elias, Bruene-Butler, Blum, & Schuyler, 1997; Goleman, 1995; Pasi, 1997). . In a longitudinal study examining the transition from high school to university, Parker et al. (2004) also found that various EI dimensions were predictors of academic success. They used a model of EI (Bar-On, 1997, 2000) that consists of four related abilities: ‘‘intrapersonal’’ abilities (consisting of related abilities like recognizing and labelling ones feelings), ‘‘interpersonal’’ abilities (consisting of related abilities like identifying emotions in others or empathy), ‘‘adaptability’’ (consisting of abilities like being able to adjust ones emotions and behaviors to changing situations or conditions), and ‘‘stress management’’ (consisting of abilities like delaying or resisting an impulse). At the start of the academic term (September) a large sample of 1st-year full-time students attending a small liberal arts university in central Ontario completed the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:Short; Bar-On, 2002). At the end of the academic year (May) the EQ-i: Short data was matched with the students Academic records and two groups were identified: academically successful (1st-year GPA of 80% or better) students and less-successful (1st-year GPA of 59% or lower) students. Consistent with expectations, the successful group scored higher than the less-successful group on several dimensions of EI: intrapersonal abilities, adaptability, and stress management. Students with higher levels of these abilities appear to be better able to cope with the social and emotional demands of making the transition to a post-secondary environment compared to students scoring low on these abilities. 2.3.2 To what extent social-emotional competencies affect student performance? The present study sought to extend the Parker et al. (2004) study by examining the relationship between EI and academic achievement in younger respondents. Based on available research in the area of social and emotional competencies with post-secondary students, it is anticipated that high school students with higher levels of social and emotional competency will perform better academically. There is consistent empirical evidence that high school student who exhibit behaviors consistent with social and emotional competency (e.g., regular class attendance, completing school work, and involvement in extracurricular activities) are more apt to be successful in school (Finn & Rock, 1997). To this end, the association between these variables was examined in a large group of students attending high school. Also, of interest is the potential developmental change in social and emotional competencies between grade 9 and 12. A significant developmental increase in social and emotional competencies from early adulthood to middle age has been established (Bar-On, 1997, 2000). 2.5 Summary of Review Literature
The review of literature related to the study was carried out under five (5) sub headings namely: the importance of motivation, theories of motivation on learning outcome, motivational strategies for teachers, problems affecting teaching performance, and finally, the impact of motivation on student’s performance. Literature review shows that the importance of motivation plays a vital role in attaining the overall educational aim and objectives through teaching and learning process. Observations from several author such as Ormord, Ugwu and others shows that motivation is used to achieve effective performance in the teaching learning process and also that the teachers as well as the students must be motivated. Pertaining theories of motivation on learning outcome, the review shows that all behavior are motivated and people have reasons for doing the things they do and the behavior is oriented towards meeting certain goals and objectives. And it treats some theories of motivation such as: Maslow’s theory of motivation, Victor Vroom theory of motivation, Mc Gregor theory of motivation, Herberg theory of motivation, and Cognitive – field theory of motivation. The review on the motivational strategies for teachers show that when teachers hard work are being considered like paying them their salaries regularly, adequate promotion and other benefits in the educational system, it will make the teachers to be working very hard in the school in order to give in their best. It was also seen from the review that many problems affect teaching performance. Such problems are: inadequate provision of fund, administrative problem, the social view of the teachers, inadequate supervision in the school system, lack of accurate and adequate statistics are seen as the hindrance or problems effecting teaching performance. The review also shows the impact of motivation on student’s performance. Motivation regulates, directs, the child’s behaviour and the behaviour of such a student will be guided. Equally, the impact of motivation on students can be seen in the classroom setting, that is, motivation energizes the behaviour of students arouses them for action.
This chapter presents the research design and methodological framework of the study adopted by the researcher in undertaking the study. This section includes research design, study areas, population, sample and sampling procedures as well as data collection methods. 3.1 Research Design
The study used a descriptive research design because of the nature of the variables that were at hand, to produce data, required for quantitative and qualitative analysis and to allow simultaneous description of views, perceptions and beliefs at any single point in time (White, 2000). Research design is simply the framework or plan for a study used as a guide in collecting and analysing data. Mason (1998) defines qualitative research as malt - method in focus involving an interpretive and naturalistic approach to its subject matter. Cohen, Marion and Morris (2000) argue that qualitative research is reported in terms of verbal description rather than numerical form. It employs semi- structured interview, observation, checklist and documentary analysis, which are flexible as well as sensitive to the social context in which data are produced rather than using the rigidly standardized or structured, the onces removed from real life research instruments as those utilized as in some of the experimental methods. While qualitative approach gives in-depth in understanding the phenomena, the quantitative approach adds breath to the study (Stanlock 1993). Therefore the combination of two methodologies was used to support the data interpretation. 3.2 Study Areas and its characteristics
The study was carried out in Dar es Salaam region Ilala district, Mchikichini ward at Mchikichini secondary school including secondary school teachers as a case study. The study area was considered appropriate because of the low performance of teachers because there are minimal monetary and non-monetary motivators given to them by the researcher as the government teacher. Besides, the area is familiar to the researcher who lives near Mchikichini secondary school and he has worked as a public servant for more than ten years in teaching career so he has enough experience on motivations issues for teachers and their performance. 3.3Population
Best and Khan (1998) state that a population is a group of individuals who have one or more characteristics in common those are of interest to the researcher. The population for this study involved District Education Officer of Secondary Schools (DEOS), District Academic Officer of Secondary Schools (DAOS), teachers and students of Mchikichini secondary school. 3.4The Sample and Sampling Procedure
A sample is a specimen or part of a whole, which is drawn to show what the rest is like, (Naouman, 1998). Miles and Huberman (1994) argue that a small size sample characterizes qualitative paradigm, the researcher selects the sample that is sufficient to provide maximum insight and understanding of the problem under study Baker (1994).
3.4 .2 Sample size
Overall, 42 respondents participated in the study (20 teachers, 20 students, 1 District Education Officer of Secondary and 1 District Academic Officer of Secondary School). Table 3.1 presents the sample size description. Table 3.1 Categories of Respondents
District Education Officer of Secondary
District Academic Officer of Secondary School (DAOS)
Secondary School Teachers
Source: Researchers’ sampling scheme (2014)
Profile of Respondents
District Education Officer of Secondary
He was involved in the study to provide essential information because his key responsibilities are to ensure teachers are motivated in his District. In addition to that the researcher thought that he can provide the information about teachers morale exhibited by the teacher in Ilala municipal and the step taken to ensure teachers’ morale is rising to the top. District Academic Officer of Secondary School (DAOS)
He was involved in the study so that he would give some information whether there is any relationship between teacher’s motivation and student performance in Ilala district. In addition, the researcher thought that this officer would have some strategic measures in the district on how to help teachers to build their working performance. Secondary School Teachers
These were the key target of this research whereby they were expected to provide in-depth information concerning the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance in the school system and student performance. The researcher thought that teachers could give more information about their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. They would help the researcher to gather information on the main reasons for poor teacher motivation, the factors which hinder effective teacher’s motivation and their suggestions toward adequate motivation. Students
They were involved in the study so that they might provide some information on what they know about their teacher overall working activities and their obligation toward teaching in Mchikichini secondary schools and explain how they perform in their end examinations results. 3.5 Data Collection instruments
The study employed various dada collecting instruments in collecting information from various respondents. These are: questionnaires, interview, focus group discussion and documentation. 3.5.1 Questionnaires
They refer to a set of question typed or printed whereby researcher use to collect information needed for the study. It is an easy instrument to administer many respondents within a short time. The questionnaires were administered by hand and collected on the spot. This ensured a 100% return of the instrument. A Self administered questionnaire
A self administered questionnaire was the major instrument that was used in data collection. Questionnaires were administered to 20 teachers of Mchikichini secondary school and1 District Education officer for secondary school. This helped to gather quantitative and qualitative information regarding the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students in Mchikichini Secondary school. The questionnaires comprised of both closed and open-ended questions formulated by the researcher. 3.5.2 Interview
An interview guide was designed and administered to District Academic Officer of secondary school to capture qualitative in-depth information. This was purposely intended to get more information about the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students compared it with that given by teachers. The purpose of the research interview is to explore the views, experiences, beliefs and/or motivations of individuals on specific matters. Qualitative methods, such as interviews, are believed to provide a 'deeper' understanding of social phenomena than would be obtained from purely quantitative methods, such as questionnaires. Interviews are, therefore, most appropriate where little is already known about the study phenomenon or where detailed insights are required from individual participants. They are also particularly appropriate for exploring sensitive topics, where participants may not want to talk about such issues in a group environment. A sample interview guide is attached to this study as appendix III. 3.5.3 Focus Group Discussion
One focus group discussion composed of 20 Students was organized at Mchikichini secondary school to capture their views on teacher’s motivation as well as their own performance in Mchikichini secondary school. The benefits of focus group discussions is relatively quick, inexpensive, excellent for obtaining background information, flexible investigative approach; client can participate in the discussions if appropriate, easy to accommodate contingencies by changing scenarios in mid-stream if necessary. A focus group discussion checklist was used to guide the discussion. A sample focus group discussion checklist is attached to this study as appendix IV 3.5.4 Documentation
Kothari, (2004) argued that documentation is a proof of anything written, printed materials relied upon the record and bound something. This method involves reading books, newspapers, journals and periodicals. It involves primary and secondary resources. Therefore this method used in this study to help the researcher to capture many details which were helpful in the study. The main sources of secondary data included the following: school reports to Municipal education office, teacher welfare committee minutes, Internet surfing, reviewing of magazines, newspapers, reports and publications, public records and statistics. For orientation in the field, existing data sets like Ilala District local government records, census report, statistical abstract and textbooks were consulted. From these sources, location of the study area, population characteristics and existing literature related to the topic were obtained. Advantages of this are regarded as less expensive than others because the readings can be found easily. It is also used for a long period of time and in the study of many events such as census. Documentation is also the first hand information which is not distorted. However, the limitations from the method include the data which are sometimes outdated, incomplete and less reliable since most officers do not write to reveal most vital officials overviews. The solution to these drawbacks the researcher uses the adult education officers who previously work with them during the field work practice to assist obtaining the information.
3.6 Data analysis Plan
The data collected from the field and from documentary review were subjected to critical analysis. The analysis was in two ways; qualitative and quantitative ways. Qualitative data were analyzed by description of the contents while quantitative data were tabulated, calculated and subjected to percentage. Tabulated results were interpreted with reference to the purpose and scope to the study. 3.7 Validation of the Instruments
Validity is the extent to which the instruments used during the study measure the issues they are intended to measure (Amin, 2005). To ensure validity of instruments, the instruments were developed under close guidance of the supervisor. After the questions were designed, they were pre-tested to a tenth of the teachers in the sample. This helped to identify ambiguous questions in the instruments and be able to re-align them to the objectives.
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
In this chapter, data regarding the effects of motivation on the performance of primary school teachers in Mchikichini secondary school have been presented, analyzed and discussed. The presentation is arranged in line with the objectives that guided the study, which are; i. To determine the extent to which teacher’s morale affects the influence learning and enhances student’s academic performance. ii. To find out to what extent the problem of poor motivation among teachers in Tanzania lead to poor performance. iii. To determine how poor motivation and incentives affect teacher performance and the overall effectiveness of national education systems. 4.2 Teacher’s morale affect the performance of students in schools
This task presents findings for the research questions: What is the level of teacher morale exhibited by the teachers in your school? Why Is Teacher Morale Important? Is there a relationship between teacher morale and student achievement on the end of terminal and annual examination? The study was conducted among 42 respondents as follows; from Mchikichini secondary school the study involved twenty teachers and twenty students, whereby from the Ilala Municipal the study involved District education officer for secondary school and the District academic officer of secondary school.
In the first case, the study investigated the major reasons that made teachers to join the teaching profession.
4.2.1 Background Characteristics of Respondents Toward Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Information about background characteristics of respondents in Mchikichini secondary school is presented in this section. It includes; education level of education, length of employment and motivation for teacher to join teaching profession.
188.8.131.52 Education Level of Teachers
Table 4.1: Education Level of Teacher in Mchikichini Secondary School Level of Education
Bachelor degree holders
Source: Field Data (2014)
In table 4.1 the findings show that majority of the teachers 15 out of 20 (75%) were diploma holders. Also 2 teachers out of 20 (10%) had Bachelor degree while 2 out of 20 (10 %) were Masters Holders. Only 1 teacher out of 20 (5%) has post graduate degree. This implies that teachers in Mchikichini secondary school have diferent levels of education and was expected to be motivated differently. The salaries of teacher in secondary schools differ according to their level of education but to some extent the employer failed to provide salary accordingly due to lack of fund this lead to poor morale of working among the teachers. 184.108.40.206 Length of employment and motivation for teacher.
On the other hand length of employment plays a great role toward motivation needs of teachers, Figure 4.2 Length of employment and motivation for teacher.
Source: Field Data (2014)
Figure 4.2 indicates that 7 teachers out of 20 (32%) had 1 – 2 years while 5 teachers out of 20 (24%) had worked in the schools for 5 – 6 years, 6 out of 20 (15.5%) Only 2 teacher out of 20 (9%) had less than 1 year of teaching in Mchikichini secondary school. This implies that the majority of the respondents had spent 2 years and above in the schools studied. This implies that the combination of this teachers have implication to different motivational incentives. Those who work for long period of time in Mchikichini secondary school demand to be motivated differently and the researcher found that none of them live in school quarters. Dungu (2000) also cited this problem of residential accommodation in some of the countries of sub Saharan Africa. He noted that many primary school teachers were given small house allowance to cater for their residential accommodation which forced them teachers to reside in poor houses. On the other hand, Farel (1993) also observed that teachers who fail to get institutional houses had to look for accommodation elsewhere; a situation which results into demotivation of teachers to effectively performs at work. On the other hand Motivation for joining the teaching profession plays a great role toward inner motivation of teachers. 220.127.116.11 Motivation for joining the teaching profession
Table 4.3: Motivation for joining the teaching profession
Reason for joining
Last resort due to failure to gain admission to other courses 10
Personal interest for teaching profession
Forced by guardian/ parent
Source: Field Data (2014)
Table 4.3 indicates that 10 teachers out of 20 (50%) joined the teaching profession as a last resort due to failure to gain admission to other courses while 5 teachers out of 20 (25%) joined the teaching profession because of the personal interest they had in teaching. This is a form of intrinsic motivation as reported by Ryan & Deci (2000) that intrinsic motivation is derived from within the person or from the activity itself. Further 2 teachers (10%) joined the teaching profession as a result of their parents/guardians’ instructions. This implies that teachers who join the teaching profession as a last resort due to failure to gain admission to other causes and those who were forced by guardians/parents had no intrinsic motivation and could only be motivated by externally administered rewards like pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations among others. It is widely asserted that low morale of teacher is reflected in deteriorating standards of professional conduct, including serious misbehavior (in and outside of work), and poor professional performance. Teacher absenteeism is unacceptably high and rising, time on task is low and falling, and teaching practices are characterised by limited effort with heavy reliance on traditional teacher-centered practices. Teachers are devoting less and less time to extracurricular activities, teaching preparation, and marking. The 2004 World Development Report neatly summarises these concerns about teachers. ‘Cases of malfeasance among teachers are distressingly present in many settings: teachers show up drunk, are physically abusive, or simply do nothing. It is expected therefore that their morale to perform teaching activities is obviously low and they give up working enthusiastically. In urban life; teachers face difficult situations according to inadequate incentives which are not enough to their sustainable life which lead them to lose their morale in teaching compared to other professions like accountancy, law and Science which have a lot of allowances out of their salaries. The researcher discovered that in the family few parents allow their sons and daughters to join teaching profession voluntarily. Most of them are forced to join teaching profession due to availability of loan from the government to the higher leaning institutions compared to other fields where the students are supposed to pay for their own. 4.2.2 The level of teacher morale in Mchikichini Secondary school Under this research question the researcher wanted to prove the level of teacher morale exhibited by the teachers in Mchikichini secondary school. Based on the questionnaires administered to 20 Mchikichini secondary school teachers, it was revealed that 14 teachers out of 20 (70%) state that the level of teacher morale is low while 6 out of 20 school teachers (30%) asserted that the level of teachers’ morale is high because they attend to school daily and work effectively, they reveal that students performance is low because of the students themselves lack personal commitments that’s why they are not perfect to their studies. Through the questionnaires which were administered to the District Education Officer of Secondary School, it was revealed that there was high morale among teachers in the district according to the OPRAS and inspection reports. The District Academic Officer of Secondary School who interviewed noted that the teachers’ morale is low although they pretend to work enthusiastically during the school inspection. The focus group discussion that was conducted between researcher and students shows that 16 students out of 20 (78%) said that their teachers have low morale in working due to the low salary and wages which do not give them job satisfaction. While the responses from 4 students out of 20 students (22%) who were in focus group discussion showed that their teachers have high morale because they work hard and fulfill all the intended learning outcomes effectively and efficiently. The researcher observed that most of secondary school teachers have low morale due to lack of motivation incentives such as Accommodations facilities, teaching allowances, in the job training and other incentives. Research findings in some literature shows conversely, over 80 percent of primary school teachers recently interviewed in Sierra Leone said they did not want to be teachers. Nonetheless, in a recent survey of primary schools in Sierra Leone, primary school head teachers indicated that, if they could, they would replace less than 20 percent of teachers because they are poorly motivated and have low morale (Bennell et al, 2004). It is generally accepted that the competence and commitment show their morale of working so teachers should be the most important determinant of learning outcomes if have low or high morale. Though documentation review, the researcher discovered that, teachers’ morale is important because it provides a room for effective performance to students as well as building confidence and innovative mind of teachers. Miller (1981) notes that teacher’s morale "can have a positive effect on pupil attitudes and learning. Raising teacher morale level is not only making teaching more pleasant for teachers. This creates an environment that is more conducive to learning. Morale and achievement are also related. Ellenberg (1972) found that "where morale was high, schools showed an increase in students’ achievement." Conversely, low levels of satisfaction and morale can lead to decreased teacher productivity and burnout, which is associated with "a loss of concern for and detachment from the people with whom one works, decreased quality of teaching, depression, greater use of sick leave, efforts to leave the profession, and a cynical and dehumanized perception of students" (Mendel citing Holt 1980). In short, the morale of teachers can have far-reaching implications for "student learning, the health of the organization, and the health of the teacher" (Mendel). If teachers to be encouraged, they must first recognize their diminished status that they are "discouraged and take action to become 'couraged' again" (Bolin 1987). Reassessment, when coupled with renewal, can often lead to encouragement. Reassessment involves reexamining something in order to value it again (Bolin). And renewal "implies recovery. To become renewed, teachers must reopen the case for teaching, looking again at why they chose to set out on such a vocational venture" (Bolin). . Berman (1987) also emphasizes the need for individuals "to give attention to the care and replenishing of self if they are to be dynamic, sensitive, perceptive persons who get excited about ideas and people. Teachers need to be able to keep the freshness and spark that frequently mark a novice in the field, while at the same time embedding freshness in wisdom and thoughtfulness." . Berman advises teachers to consider what is uplifting and energizing for them and then work toward integrating those things more fully into their lives. She suggests breaking out of routines and doing the unusual, planning for next steps in professional development, developing a network of individuals to dialogue with, and investing fully in tasks at hand as routes to replenishment. 4.2.3 The relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations The assumption of the researcher based on the fact that there is a relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations. In this research question, the main purpose was to find out whether there is any relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations. Table 4.4: Relationship between Teachers’ Morale and Student’ Achievement on the end of terminal and annual examination No.
Categories of Respondents
Number of Respondents
District Education Officers of Secondary Schools
District Academic Officer Education Officer of Secondary School 1
Secondary School Teachers
Source: Field Data (2014)
According to table 4.4 responses showed that the District Education Officer of secondary ascertains that there is a relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations. He advocated that in the past three years 2011, 2012 and 2013 the teacher lose their morale due to their grievances on the motivation incentive which seems to be inadequate. This led to poor performance of students especially Form Four National Examinations as indicated in the figure 4.5 Table 4.5 CSEE Examination Results
CSEE 2011 EXAMINATION RESULTS
S2771 MCHIKICHINI SECONDARY SCHOOL
DIV-I = 0 DIV-II = 1 DIV-III = 11 DIV-IV = 64 FLD = 103
CSEE 2012 EXAMINATION RESULTS
S2771 MCHIKICHINI SECONDARY SCHOOL
DIV-I = 0 DIV-II = 2 DIV-III = 3 DIV-IV = 36 FLD = 152
CSEE 2013 EXAMINATION RESULTS
S2771 MCHIKICHINI SECONDARY SCHOOL
DIV-I = 1 DIV-II = 6 DIV-III = 11 DIV-IV = 56 DIV -0 = 104
In addition the response from the District Academic Education Officer showed that there is a relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations. He said that due to low morale of teachers there is poor performance which leads to poor students’ performance in their examinations. Moreover, 20 secondary school teachers who were distributed with questionnaires to respond if there is a relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations, their response shows that 15 teachers out of 20 (75%) there is a relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examination. While 3 teachers out of 20 (30%) shows that there is a relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations but they argued that most of the students performance depends on students commitment to their studies and the effectiveness of their teachers. The interview conducted between researcher and the District Academic Education Officer of Secondary School showed that it is hard to correlate the learners’ performance and their teachers’ morale due to the fact that there are many factors which in one way or another can accelerate or become hindrance of students performance like economic status of the family, home and school environment, peer groups and availability of learner support services. Other reasons may be: students studying with hunger, lack of care from the parents, no any treatment and general preparation to send children to school. Furthermore, the focus group discussion between 20 students toward a relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations. The responses from the students showed that 17 students out of 20 (85%) ascertain that there is a relationship between teachers’ morale and students’ achievement on the end of terminal and annual examinations. They explained that due to total motivation teachers are able to take learners consideration as their children so as to help them achieve quality education and successful score. While 3 students out of 20 (15%) argued that most of the students in public schools are coming from poor families which do not prepare the conducive atmosphere to their learners which them to miss self learning at home hence poor performance. Motivation from home and school environments help to direct and regulate the child’s behaviour in such a case, the behaviour of such a student is always guided. The behavior is purposeful and persistent. For instance, when a motivated child is given an assignment in the school, he puts every effort to ensure that he gets the assignments correctly. Even when he fails the assignment, he does not get discouraged but rather puts more effort towards the achievement of his goals, Omebe (2001). The situation of learning is needed to be combined from home environment to school environment. The researcher has consistently found that ‘working with secondary schools learner’ is the main determinant of teacher job satisfaction. It is the rewarding nature of the job rather than pecuniary gain that is the primary motivation for becoming a teacher. Teachers are most dissatisfied about work overload, poor pay, and low status in public schools. This leads to poor performance of students in their end of terminal and annual examinations.
The researcher noted a positive correlation between the two variables. This means that high teachers’ morale would lead to high students’ achievement. The facts, displayed that presently at the researchers’ school, both teacher morale and student achievement were in fact low, but both appeared to be on an upward trend. Steps taken to improve teacher morale, based on the results, should result in improved students’ achievement. In order to establish a relationship between these two variables a correlation coefficient needed to be employed. This was necessary to determine whether a relationship existed between the scores and, if so, the nature of the relationship, that is, whether it is weak or strong. 4.3 The Extent that there is Poor Motivation among Teachers in Tanzania In ascertaining this the researcher distributed the questionnaires and interview instruments, where questionnaires were distributed to the District Education Officers of Secondary schools, 20 teachers, and Interviews was used to collect data from District academic Officer of secondary schools and 20 students was provide their response through focus group discussion result is shown on table 4.6 Table 4.6: The Problem of Poor Motivation among Teachers in Tanzania No.
Categories of Respondents
Number of Respondents
District education Officers of secondary schools
District academic officer of secondary school
Secondary school teacher
Source: Field Data (2014)
The District Education Officer of Secondary Schools through the questionnaire given to him noted that, there is the problem of poor motivation by saying that the government motivation incentives to teacher were inadequate because of the minimal budget allocated on Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. There is a broad consensus among MOEVT managers and other stakeholders that most teachers are doing ‘just enough’ in class. However, poor career progression coupled with the lack of recognition and reward for superior performance is a major concern for most teachers. No action is usually taken against teachers who are performing poorly, which many teachers find de-motivating. A new appraisal system has been introduced, but there are widespread concerns that it is too complicated to be workable. The Tanzania Teachers’ Union’s position on the new system is that it should only be introduced once the working environment for teachers is more enabling.
Also the District Academic Officer of Secondary School noted that although there is the problem of poor motivation which is caused by little budget allocated to the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training the District councils have been used that small amount of fund to build teachers houses, provide school with transport as well as promote the hard work employees. Similarly all 20 school teachers (100%) who were provided with questionnaires argued that the problem of poor motivation among teachers is due to poor leadership which consider their demands on their own interest and forget the manpower which have impacts in education performance of the country. The leader does not have leadership skills on how to care their subordinates. On the other hand responses from 19 students out of 20 (95%) revealed that there is a problem of motivation among their teachers, while the responses from one student (5%) showed that there is no problem of motivation among the teachers, by arguing that the motivation incentives provided to their teachers such as grants from the government, financial assistance and loans from the banks were adequate but sometimes teachers used to misuse them. Through this study the researcher discovered that there is the problem of motivation among teachers which leads to poor performance of students in Mchikichini Secondary school. Similarly though documentary review from Haki Elimu (2013) the researcher found out that the Infrastructure and working environment in most government schools are also demotivating teachers. This includes lack of chalks, electricity; teaching aids materials, tables, classrooms, books and poor environment of learning. Marginalized schools have fewer and sometimes no supportive infrastructure for carrying out school activities while on the other hand the working environment is not conducive to new employees hence they shift to other schools in urban areas. It appears that teacher job satisfaction is considerably lower among secondary teachers and that, it many ways, this does amount to a teacher motivation crisis. The 1990 World Bank survey found that, while most primary school teachers stated they had become a teacher through choice, relatively few secondary school teachers had done so. The Haki Elimu Survey reaches a similar conclusion. In the recent survey by Swai et al, only 10 percent of secondary school teachers said that they have no plans to leave and nearly half are ‘ready to leave’ straight away. The most critical finding that emerges from this study is that very sizeable proportions in Tanzania particularly Mchikichini secondary school teachers, have low levels of job satisfaction and are poorly motivated. Many thousands of students are, therefore, not being taught properly and are not receiving even a minimally acceptable education; many schools in Tanzania have very few teachers compared to the number of students they teach. Having known that, a school can have only two teachers or even one. Sometimes teachers do not teach by giving reasons that the salary is small compared to the work they do, FATAKI-Is a behavior for some of the teachers to have sexual relationships with the students they are teaching. This retards the progress of the education level in Tanzania. Most of the girls who have relationship with the teachers become proud by saying that, once they finish their studies they will be married by these teachers and there is no need for them to study hard. 4.4 Poor motivation and incentives affect teacher performance and the overall effectiveness of national education systems Under this aspect the researcher wanted to know how poor motivation and incentives affect teacher performance and the overall effectiveness of national education systems. Basing on the questionnaires given to 20 school teachers, it was revealed that there is indeed a teacher motivation ‘crisis’ in Tanzania. They all agreed that the level of teacher’s morale and job satisfaction is generally low. They pointed out that, while teachers’ morale is low, it has nevertheless been improving over the last few years. This affects the teachers’ performance and the overall education systems, showing that teachers’ levels of job satisfaction and motivation depend on an array of factors such as levels of remuneration, location and type of school, availability of appropriate housing, opportunities for further training, and conditions of service, workload, promotion and career path, student behaviour, relationship with community, school quality factors such as availability of teaching, and learning resources. Clear motivational differences also exist between qualified and unqualified/ under qualified teachers at government schools. At both primary and secondary schools, unqualified teachers receive considerably lower salaries even though their workloads are usually the same, if not heavier, than they are for qualified teachers. While unqualified teachers can acquire the necessary professional qualifications, it usually takes such a long time for them to be considered for training that many become demotivated. A recent tracer survey of university graduates found that education graduates have had fewer opportunities for further education and training than graduates from other disciplines, which is mainly attributable to the lack of opportunities for training for education graduates as well as career paths that do not reward further education and training (Kadzamira 2003). On the other hand the District Academic Officer for Secondary School argued that the conditions in which most teachers are working are daunting and very challenging, especially in the urban populated schools like Mchikichini secondary school. Lack of facilities such as staffrooms, classrooms, teaching and learning materials are clearly demotivating. The working environment in the majority of schools is deplorable with dilapidated school structures, insufficient teaching and learning materials. Poor housing conditions, lack of housing, large classes, undisciplined and unruly students have all added their toll on teachers’ motivation, this lead to poor performance and the overall education system. Victor Vroom (1964) in his own contributions advanced the expectancy valence theory he argue that motivation is a function of the expectancy of attaining a certain outcome in performing a certain act multiplied by the value of the outcome for the performance. M(f) = ExV
Where M = Motivation
E = Expectancy
V = Value expected.
Expectancy theory has two outcomes. First, outcome that is highly valued, and have high expectations of being realized will direct a person to make a greater effort in his/her taste. Secondly, outcome with high expectations, which are less highly valued or even dislike will reduce the effort expected. The significance of this theory is that an administration should take cognizance of the relationship of the first and second outcomes and use them to motivate his subordinates. Moreover, the District Education Officer of Secondary School revealed that to motivate and retain teachers there is need to pay greater attention to the terms and conditions of service. Some promising proposals have been made in the draft education sector plan as well as the national education conference. Most notable among these are: giving priority in the construction of teacher houses, hardship allowances for teachers working in the remote hard-to-reach rural schools in deprived areas, the introduction of a new professional career path for teachers with transparent promotion criteria based on performance, New deployment policies that would ensure that public schools are not disadvantaged, Increased provision of instructional materials and better support and supervisory services among others. Generally the researcher views that, the problem of teacher motivation in Tanzania has always been the lack of financial and management capacity to implement these plans. If the proposed changes are not introduced very soon, teacher job satisfaction and motivation will continue to fall and the education system will not reach to the national objectives as well as Big Result Now (BRN) initiatives. 4.3.1 The extent to social-emotional competencies affects teacher’s performance Previous research by Sansone and 61Harackiewicz (2000) established that extrinsic motivation results from the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations from others. Basing on this description, therefore, the study investigated whether teachers received various externally administered rewards (extrinsic motivators) like salary, free accommodation, free meals, weekly duty and extra teaching allowances, advance payments in case of financial problems, leave of absence and free medical care among others. Teachers’ responses regarding these extrinsic motivators are presented in Table 4.3 below. Table 4.7: Extrinsic Motivators of Teachers
Extrinsic Motivators among teachers
1.I am paid my salary that is enough to cuter for my basic need 2
2.The school provided me free accommodation
3.I can get free meal at school
4.Salary payment are prompt
5.The school offers weekly duty allowance
6.The school organizes end of year party for teachers
7.Teachers who perform well are given prizes
8.Teachers are given free medical care in case of ill health 1
9.It is possible to get financial assistance in case I have financial problem -
Source: Field data (2014)
Table 4.7 shows extrinsic motivators available and not available to teachers in various in Mchikichini secondary school, the majority of the teachers’ revealed absence of the following extrinsic motivators: a) 90.0% indicated that the salary paid to them was inadequate to meet their basic needs, b) 95.0% indicated that teachers were not given free medical care in case of ill health, b) 100.0% indicate that their schools did not offer weekly duty allowances to teachers. d) 5.0% of the teachers indicated that their schools did not organize end of year parties to give thanks and motivate teachers and, e) 75% had no accommodation provided by the schools. f) 100% do not have possibility to get financial assistance in case they have financial probrem
On the other hand some teachers revealed that they got the following extrinsic motivators; a) Free meals when at school (agreed by 5.0%),
b) Prompt salary payments (revealed by 79.0%),
c) Prizes for teachers who perform well (25.0%)
On the other hand all teachers acknowledged that the school organizes end of year party for teachers although the teachers should ensure they submit their financial contribution in order to attend the party. From the above responses, it is clear that not all extrinsic motivators were available to teachers in Mchikichini secondary school. The findings partly agree with Mertler (1992) that, the work and living environment for many teachers is poor, which tends to lower self-esteem and is generally demotivating. Many schools lack basic amenities such as piped water and electricity, staff rooms and toilets. Housing is a major issue for nearly all teachers. Notable among the lacking extrinsic motivators was that the salary paid to them was inadequate to meet their basic needs (revealed by 90.0% of the respondents). Yet, Wayne (1991) asserts that a reward in form of pay has a strong impact on the employees‘performance. Bratton (2003), agree with Wayne when they state that pay is one of the most powerful motivating tools. Similarly, Armstrong (1996) emphasizes the value of extrinsic motivation when he says that money provides the means to achieve a number of different ends. Above all he asserts that money in form of pay is the most obvious extrinsic reward. However, prompt salary payments revealed by 88.0% of the teachers were further commended by Kiseesi (1998) that salaries of workers should be paid promptly. She observes that salary was a strong force that kept teachers at their jobs. The researcher indicated that salary was vital in causing satisfaction among workers and hence likely to influence performance. Inability of schools to provide free accommodation to teachers had already been cited by previous studies. For example, Dungu (2000) cited the problem of residential accommodation of teachers in some countries of sub Saharan Africa. He noted that many primary school teachers were given small house allowance to cater for their residential accommodation which forced them to reside in poor houses. This affected their motivation and eventually job performance. On the other hand, Farel (1993) also observed that teachers who failed to get institutional houses had to look for accommodation elsewhere; a situation which resulted into demotivation of teachers to effectively performs at work. 4.5.3 The suggestions of things to be done to ensure that teachers are adequately motivated The researcher through various reviews of literature and experience he discover that; According to Maslow (1954) he came up with the theory of hierarchy of needs. This is based on clinical supervision and logic. In this theory of motivation, he stresses that individuals are motivated to satisfy several different kinds of needs, which are more proponent than others. Maslow’s theory states that if a number of features of a person’s needs are unsatisfied at any given time, satisfaction of the most proponent ones will be more pressing than that of other. So Maslow was on the idea that a satisfied need does not determine behaviour but unsatisfied need. This implies that the teacher’s behaviour in the classroom is a function of his needs. In other words, his needs influence his behaviour in the classroom in no small measure. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on what makes the ‘effective’ motivation of teacher. And yet, the focus to date of policy reform in most countries has been on improving learning outcomes through a better allocation of resources, more accountability, curriculum reforms and refined assessment systems, and better pre-and in-service teacher training. However, the limited impact of many of these interventions has forced politicians and policymakers to focus increasingly on the needs of teachers themselves.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents summary, conclusions and recommendations of the study. The recommendations are proposed as a means of motivation of teachers as well as increasing their performance at work. Summary and conclusions on the other hand, involve salient issues found out in the study. 5.2 Summary and Conclusion
This study examined the effects of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers in Mchikichini secondary school Ilala municipality. A total of 20 teachers participated in the study. With varying education levels, the majority of the respondents had been working for over 2 years in the schools studied. This implies that teachers were already conversant with the motivators in their respective schools and were therefore expected to assess how such motivators had affected their performance at work. Consequently, some of the study findings agree with the conceptual framework that was developed to guide the study while others do not. In all, however, the study found that motivation was necessary for high performance of teachers although in most cases teachers were poorly motivated. Below, summary and conclusions of the study are presented in line with the specific objectives of the study, thus; i. Determine the extent to which teacher’s morale affects the influence learning and enhances student’s academic performance. ii. Finding out to what extent is there a problem of poor motivation among teachers in Tanzania. iii. Determine how poor motivation and incentives affect teacher performance and the overall effectiveness of national education systems. 5.2.1 The extent of teacher’s morale affect the performance of students in schools
The researcher discovered a there is positive correlation was ascertained between the two variables. This means that high teachers’ morale would lead to high student achievement. The facts, displayed that presently at the researchers school, both teachers’ morale and student achievement were in fact low, but both appeared to be on an upward trend. Steps taken to improve teacher morale, based on the results, should result in improved student achievement. In order to establish a relationship between these two variables a correlation coefficient needed to be employed. This was necessary to determine whether a relationship existed between the scores and, if so, the nature of the relationship, that is, whether it is weak or strong. Many schools in Tanzania experience low morale which affects the performance of the learners. Research findings indicated that the majority of the respondents were intrinsically motivated by the responsibilities they performed in the school that gave them a sense of control over others, interaction and development of relationship with people from many areas, recognition and respect accorded to teachers by the community and the challenging nature of the teaching profession. Other forms of intrinsic motivation were a great deal of job satisfaction and career development in the teaching profession. This implies that such teachers derived their expectations from teaching and therefore had high morale to perform better. Surprisingly, however, the majority of them indicated that intrinsic motivation had to a small extent increased their morale to perform. However, a significant positive relationship existed between intrinsic motivation and performance of teachers implying that increase in intrinsic motivation increased the performance of teachers. Basing on the research findings, therefore, the study concluded that the majority of the respondents had no intrinsic motivation evidenced by less increased recognition, job satisfaction, career development, commanding control over other people in the community, the challenging and competitive nature of the teaching profession and having realized their goal in life which was training the nation. This implies that increase in intrinsic motivation of teachers will increased their performance at work. 5.2.2 The extent a problem of poor motivation among teachers in Tanzania The most critical finding that emerges from this study is that very sizeable proportions of Mchikichini secondary school teachers, particularly in Tanzania, have low levels of job satisfaction and are poorly motivated. Many thousands of students are therefore, not being taught properly and are not receiving even a minimally acceptable education; many schools in Tanzania have very few teachers compared to the number of students they teach. Basing on the study findings presented in this objective, therefore, it can be concluded that not to the big extent the problem of poor motivation exist in Mchikichini secondary school. However, the majority of them were concerned about the inadequacy of the salary to meet their basic needs. Consequently, the study found that extrinsic motivators had to a big extent increased teachers ‘morale to perform. The relationship was statistically significant at level of significance, implying that increasing extrinsic motivation would increase the performance of teachers in Mchikichini secondary school. 5.2.1 The effect of motivation on teachers’ morale to perform their work
Research findings revealed that teachers benefited from both monetary and non-monetary motivators. The majority of the respondents joined the teaching profession because of the personal interest they had in teaching. However, 90% of the teachers indicated that salary was inadequate to meet their needs with increase of the cost of living. The inadequacy of the salary earned by primary school teachers was emphasized by one head teacher that most teachers are not satisfied with the amount of money the government pays them. It‘s indeed inadequate. The cost of living has gone up and most teachers find it difficult meet daily expenses like transport, house rent, food, medical care and school fees for their family members. In addition, late payment of salaries was very common in Ilala municipality. As a form of motivation, therefore, salary was insufficient to motivate teachers and increase their morale to perform efficiently. Besides, non monetary motivators were available in some schools although not all teachers had access to them in the respective schools they taught. Basing on the findings, it is fair to conclude that the performance of teachers was not good because motivation was inadequate. Consequently, many respondents advocated for increase in salary and other non monetary benefits of teachers to match the increasing cost of living in Mchikichini ward and Tanzania in general.
Study findings revealed that the extrinsic motivators available to teachers in Mchikichini secondary school were not get free meals, prompt salary payments, advance payment from the schools in case teachers had financial problems, leave of absence they only depend on tution which is extra teaching allowances to teachers. On the other hand, respondents revealed absence of the following extrinsic motivators: adequate salary, medical care, weekly duty allowances to teachers as well as accommodation. This implies that not all extrinsic motivators were available to teachers in Mchikichini secondary school. Salary was notably the most pressing motivator that was reported to be lacking. Consequently, the majority of the respondents (74.3%) indicated that extrinsic motivators had a small effect on teacher‘s morale to perform; implying that inadequacy of extrinsic motivators did not significantly affect the morale of teachers to perform. Teachers do not give their best, due to payment of salary by the authority to the teachers’ student’s inadequate knowledge as a result of not being taught adequately since the teachers are not motivated to give in their best, Teachers life look deplorable as they are being deprived of their benefit they ought to enjoy and make them effective and efficient in their teaching job, low standard of education in the country is noted since the qualitative education needed is essential. Society human resources will be lagging since the character and knowledge moulder (teacher) cannot satisfactorily perform his duty. 5.3 Recommendations
Basing on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are made:
1. The Ministry of Public Service should work out incentive packages to increase teachers ‘motivation to teach in primary schools. Special attention should be put at increasing teacher‘s salaries because the majority of them (teachers) complain about the inadequacy of their salary to meet their needs. Increasing teacher‘s salaries will increase their morale to teach. This is because the teachers must be interested in what they teach and in the children when they are teaching. If they are not interested in the work themselves, they can never motivate the class to learn.
2. Accommodation needs to be provided to the teachers to enable them live near schools since many of them reported to be living far away from their schools. Communities should be assisted by the government to put up decent teachers ‘houses so that teachers live within the schools and thus reduce lateness and absenteeism. This will increase their motivation and eventually performance. The local community‘s contribution in this case may be in form of provision of free labour or financial contributions towards the construction process.
3. Supervision by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MOEVT) through Education Standards Agency should be strengthened and circuit supervisors to be more regular to stop teachers from participating in secondary employment. The District Inspectorate should also be strengthened and adequately funded to carry out routine inspections in schools. Regular visits to the schools would motivate the teachers to be more regular and early in school and avoid divided attention of searching for secondary employment.
4. Awards could be instituted for better performance. Areas such as school and students discipline, teacher performance, pupil attendance and achievement and community and parent participation in school activities should be rewarded to serve as a motivation. Teachers’ payment should be significantly increased as most secondary school teachers, particularly in relatively high-cost urban centers, are simply unable to meet their basic household needs. As a result, many of them are forced to find other sources of income. Attractive career structures for secondary school teachers need to be urgently introduced in Tanzania with regular promotions based on clearly specified and transparent performance-related criteria. Teacher accountability to school management and to parents and the community as a whole be increased Ilala school administrators should improve their ability to enable others to act by developing better cooperative working relationships, by listening more to diverse points of view, by supporting decisions made by others, by fostering and developing trust, and by giving the freedom and latitude for teachers to act. Because teacher salary has the largest effect on lowering morale, the Tanzania budget should consider including a local supplement to teacher salaries like many other school private schools. School administrators should improve their ability to model the way for their teachers by asking for feedback, building consensus, defining philosophical leadership ideas, and discussing the future and direction of the school. School administrators should improve their ability to challenge the process by offering new and innovative ways for teachers to work and by encouraging teachers to take more practical works in the classroom. Training opportunities for school teachers should be offered to aid in improving the building-wide morale and climate.
5. Teachers need to motivate the children. Motivation is the force that determines how much effort an individual puts into his learning (Farrant, 1980). As put by Farrant (1980, p. 113), The engines of human motivation are interest and desire. When these are working at full power in an individual, remarkable feats of learning can be achieved. It is therefore in the teacher‘s interest to take the trouble to see that the child‘s interest and appropriate desires are aroused before trying to teach him. It is therefore important that teachers attempt to arouse the interest and the joy in each lesson they teach. They could do this through the use of humor in the classroom, paying individual attention to the pupils using different approaches to teaching and positive reinforcements. Motivated classes tend to increase teacher morale and performance.
5.4 Areas for Further Research
The results of the study have revealed inadequate motivation of teachers and consequently low performance. This implies that studies to investigate strategies that can be implemented to improve teacher motivation and performance in secondary schools are necessary.
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QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS
My name is Kalonga David, a student at Institute of Adult Education Dar es salaam, pursuing a Degree in Adult and Continuing Education. I am carrying out research on the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students. I kindly request you to provide me with information. It will be treated as confidential and used for academic purposes only. SECTION A: BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT TEACHERS IN MCHIKICHINI SECONDARY SCHOOL (Tick the right option or fill the right answer in the spaces provided) A1. Highest education level attained (Please tick under only one of them) QUALIFICATION
6.Others (please specify)
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION AMONG TEACHERS
B1. For each of the following statements, please indicate (by ticking) the extent to which you agree with them, using the following scale: (Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree and strongly disagree). Statements
1.Teaching gives me a great job of satisfaction
2.I enjoy teaching as a professional
3.The challenging nature of teaching has kept me in professional
4.Teaching is competitive profession in this school
5.Teaching gives me recognition and respect from the community
6.I have prospect for career development in Teaching professional
7.Teaching is one of my goals in my life
8.I am more useful to the community as a teacher than any other profession
9.Teaching enable me to interact and develop relationship with people from many areas
B2. To what extent have the intrinsic motivators increased your morale to perform teaching responsibilities? To a big extent To a small extent Not at all B3. What is the Impact of Motivation on teacher’s Performance? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ B4. To what extent social-emotional competencies affect teacher’s performance? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SECTION C: EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION AMONG TEACHERS
C1. For each of the following statements about extrinsic motivation, please indicate (by ticking) the extent to which you agree with them, using the following scale: (Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree and strongly disagree).
1.I am paid my salary that is enough to cuter for my basic need
2.The school provided me free accommodation
3.I can get free meal at school
4.Salary payment are prompt
5.The school offers weekly duty allowance
6.The school organizes end of year party for teachers
7.Teachers who perform well are given prizes
8.Teachers are given free medical care in case of ill health
9.It is possible to get financial assistance in case I have financial problem
C2. To what extent have the extrinsic motivators increased your morale to perform teaching responsibilities?
To a big extent To a small extent Not at all
SECTION D: PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS
D1. For each of the following statements about performance of teachers, please indicate (by ticking) the extent to which you agree them, using the following scale: (Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree and strongly disagree). Statements
1.Teacher come every early at school
2.Always teacher come with lesson plan
3.There is regular marking test and feedback to students
4.Teachers always participate in co-curricular activities
5.There is regular test and examination of students
6.Teacher supervise all school activities
7.There is regular attendance to class lesson by teacher
8.Regular attendance to extra lesson
9.Teacher are efficient at maintenance of students discipline
D2. Is there any problem of poor motivation among teachers in your school? Yes No
If yes, what are the main reasons for poor teacher motivation? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
D3. In your own point of view what are the factors that hinder effective teacher’s motivation? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ D4. What should be done to ensure that teachers are adequately motivated in this school? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ************
Thanks for your cooperation
QUESTIONAIRE FOR DISTRICT EDUCATION OFFICER OF SECONDARY SCHOOL My name is Kalonga David, a student at Institute of Adult Education Dar es salaam, pursuing a Degree in Adult and continuing education. I am carrying out research on the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students. I kindly request you to provide me with information. It will be treated as confidential and used for academic purposes only.
SECTION A. To what extent do you typically engage in the following behaviors? Choose the response number that best applies to each statement and record it in the box to the right of that statement. 1 = Almost Never 2 = Rarely 3 = Seldom 4 = Once in a While 5 =Occasionally 6 = Sometimes 7 =Fairly Often 8 = Usually 9 = Very Frequently 10 = Always 1.
I set a personal example of what I expect of others
I talk about future trends that will influence how our work gets done.
I seek out challenging opportunities that test my own skills and abilities.
I develop cooperative relationships among the teacher I work with
I praise teacher for a job well done.
I spend time and energy making certain that the people I work with adhere to the principals and standards we have agreed on.
I challenge teacher to try out new and innovative ways to do their work.
I actively listen to diverse points of view.
I make it a point to let people know about my confidence in their abilities.
I follow through on the promises and commitments that I make.
I search outside the formal boundaries of my organization for innovative ways to improve what we do.
I treat others with dignity and respect.
I make sure that teachers are creatively rewarded for their contributions to the success of our projects in Ilala Municipal
I ask for feedback on how my actions affect other people’s performance.
I publicly recognize teachers who exemplify commitment to shared values.
I build consensus around a common set of values for running our organization.
I ensure that teachers grow in their jobs by learning new skills and developing themselves.
I give the members of the team lots of appreciation and support for their contribution.
I speak with a genuine conviction about the higher meaning and purpose of our work.
I provide counseling to teacher who face socio-economic problem in their life
1. What is the level of teacher morale exhibited by the teachers in your schools in Ilala Municipal? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. i) Do you think teacher morale is important for good academic performance of learners? Please tick one Yes No ii) Please give a little explanation
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What steps can teachers take to preserve or raise their morale? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. As an administrator which way you adhere to influence teacher morale in Ilala Municipal? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Thanks for your cooperation