Trauma- and Stressor-related Disorders
Trauma- and stressor-related disorders look into the psychological distress that comes after an event that is a very stressful or traumatic event. There are many different disorders within this spectrum that include: reactive attachment disorder, disinhibited social engagement disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorder. This study focuses on the disorders falling in the category of trauma- and stressor-related and the treatment that is best for each individual disorder.
An Overview of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorder
When looking at trauma- and stressor-related disorders we will find many different disorders within this category, five to be exact. These five disorders within trauma- and stressor-related disorder are: reactive attachment disorder, disinhibited social engagement disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorder. Within each of these disorders are different criteria they must meet in order to be diagnosed with that specific disorder along with diagnosis features. It is important to understand that all of the disorders within trauma- and stressor- related disorders all have some kind of exposure to trauma, some are directly and some are indirectly. Etiology
Looking at the etiology of these different types of trauma- and stressor-related disorders each one varies in the factors that may contribute to the disorder. When looking at reactive attachment disorder it shows that an unhealthy environment and home along with instability is one of the main environmental factors that lead to this disorder. “Infants and young children need a stable, predictable environment to form secure attachments. Crucial to this stable environment is the presence of consistent caregivers who respond to the child in a predictable manner.” (Hornor, pg. 236) On the other hand there are no genetic factors that have a direct relationship to reactive attachment disorder, this goes for disinhibited social engagement disorder also. The only environmental risk factor shown to be related to disinhibited social engagement is social neglect. In posttraumatic stress disorder there are three stages that need to be looked at pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and posttraumatic. In pretraumatic there are two factors that can influence this disorder, both environmental and genetics. Environmentally having a lower socioeconomic status or even prior trauma can be a risk factor to develop PTSD, genetically women who are younger in age are also more likely to develop this disorder. Peritraumatic on the other hand depends on the severity of the traumatic event that occurred and has no genetic factors that can lead to this disorder. Posttraumatic looks at exposure to cues that may set of the client, within their environment. “However, only a few genetic marker studies have been conducted and there are, unfortunately, inconsistent results.” (Keane et al., pg. 171) Acute stress disorder has both environmental and genetic factors that are connected to developing this disorder. Environmentally most clients are usually exposed to traumatic even and has a history of prior trauma. Genetically, females are at greater risk to develop this disorder. Adjustment disorder has not genetic factors and the only environmental factor is that those who have disadvantaged life circumstances are more likely to develop this disorder. Evaluating for these Disorders
When looking at these disorders it is important that the therapist evaluates the client accordingly to make sure the client is diagnosed with the correct disorder. With all of these disorders it is important to look at the individual and family history along with having a structural interview with the clients to see if they meet the diagnostic criteria. These criteria’s...
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