FINAL HANDOUTS FOR SOC 10
Lesson XIV The Third Republic
Under the 140 constitutional amendment of the 1935 Constitution, the unicameral Assembly was abolished and replaced by a bicameral Congress. The congressional election took place in 1941, but a month later, the elected members were not able to convene because World War II broke out and was followed by the Japanese occupation.
On June 9, 1945, the Philippine Congress convened for the first time after the war. Brig. Gen. Manuel Roxas was selected Senate president. The Congress called for national election set on April 23, 1946. Prior to the election, the worsening relation between Osmena and Roxas, both from the Nationlista Party, reached a breaking point, when Roxas left the Party and organized his own, the Liberal Party, Roxas ran against Osmena for the presidency, while Elpidio Quirino ran against Eulogio “Amang” Rodriguez for vice-precidency. The Liberal won with Roxas and Quirino defeating Osmena and Rodriguez.
Roxas had beaten Osmena by slim margin of some 203,000 votes and became the last president of the Commonwealth and, months later, the president of the Third Republic. Independence and the Republic
On July 4, 1946, the Independence of the Philippines and the inauguration of the Philippine Third Republic were highlighted by the lowering of the American flag by the American Ambassador Paul McNutt and the raising of the Philippine flag by President Manuel Roxas. The First President of the First Republic
Manuel Roxas begun his active and prominent role in the Philippine politics years before the Commonwealth as a member of the legislature. He was elected to the Senate in 1941. After the Pearl harbor incident he offered his services to McArthur as a military aide. He acted as liaison officer between the Army Commander and the Philippine government. Roxas was appointed presidential secretary by Manuel Quezon before the latter left for Australia at the beginning of the war. Towards Rehabilitation
The third Republic started of a foundation of a war-damaged nation. As its first president, the mammoth tasks of rebuilding and rehabilitating the country were loaded on Roxas’ shoulders.
Roxas was convinced to a point that the Philippines could not survive, much less rehabilitate its economy without American aid and investment. When Roxas went to Washington to solicit the help of the United States government for funds, he told the Americans that “the Filipinos are not of the Orient except y geography. We are part of the Western world by reason of culture, religion, ideology, and economics. Although the color of our skin is brown the temper of our minds and hearts are almost identical with yours… So you have in us the protagonist of your political and economic system – a broadcasting station for Americanism.”
Roxas request for an immediate loan of $ 25 million within five years and $ 1 billion at 1.5% interest for 30 years. The US Congress voted to grant him $ 25 million on March 1947 while UNRRA (United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration) granted him $ 10 million although he applied for $ 100 million. “In addition, the United States turned over to the Philippines $ 50 million worth of surplus military equipment. The United States Rehabilitation and Finance Corporation gave the Philippines a loan of $ 60 million. The Bell Trade Act
On April 30, 1946, the United State Congress passed a law authorized by the Congressman C. Jasper Bell, which came to be known as the Bell Trade Act. The acr provided for free trading relations between the Philippines and the United States up to the year 1954 after which, Philippine export to the US would be taxed an ascending tariff 5% every year until 1974, when all the Philippine exports will be paid in full to US import tax.
On April 15, 1948, after delivering a speech wherein he reiterated Philippine solidarity with the United States, President Manuel Roxas died of a massive heart attack in Clark Field,...
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