To thoroughly prepare for your exam, the following review process is recommended:
1. Review lecture notes and powerpoint files for each chapter (copies on webct).
2. Practice OUTLINING (coordinating and subordinating: framing main point/subpoint/sub-subpoint information).
3. Finally, specific knowledge of the following will prove useful:
1. The 3 purposes of public speaking To inform, to persuade, to entertain
2. The 9 elements that affect public speaking (sender, receiver, message, medium, etc.)
3. The different phases of listening (discriminative, comprehensive, empathic, critical, etc. … know what’s involved in each different phase)
Discriminative: Hearing, automatic (involuntary), detection of sounds
Comprehensive: voluntary, finding meaning, focusing, understanding, interpreting
Empathetic: “heart” of listening, encourages speakers by suspending judgment
Critical: analyze, evaluate, inspect reasoning, weigh evidence (relevant, representative, recent, reliable)
Appreciative: beauty of message, speaker eloquence, aesthetics
4. Disruptions to speech process (interference) … know what the external barriers are to listening, and what the internal barriers are to listening … which are the greater barriers (internal or external)?
External Barriers: Physical noise, message problems (confusing language/poor organization), presentation problems
Internal Barriers (GREATER BARRIERS): Inattentiveness, bad habits, receiver apprehension, trigger words (positive & negatives), attitudes
5. Criteria for evaluating speeches (five general considerations, plus what three specific criteria)
Overall considerations – commitment, adaption, purpose, freshness, ethics
Specific criteria – substance, structure, presentation
6. The four elements of audience dynamics – know each, plus be able to distinguish between attitudes, beliefs and values
Motivations – our needs & wants,