FiloLec

Topics: Existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre, Metaphysics Pages: 7 (1025 words) Published: May 14, 2015
INTFILO

Rationalist believe in Apriori. Apriori comes before sense experience.

EMPIRICISM – Senses (Page 191)

1. JOHN LOCKE – TABULA RASA = BLANK STATE

Notebook
Mind begins with clear state
We use our senses to find out about the world
Sense data or qualities
World existing outside of us
Primary qualities: Scientific characteristics of an object
Substrata – what truly exists / reality
a. HINDU MYSTIC – praying and sitting on a bed of nails
What supports the Earth? A white elephant
What supports the white elephant? A giant tortoise
What supports the giant tortoise? “I KNOW NOT WHAT”
Empiricists admit limitation of knowledge
LOCKE – Our knowledge is only as far as our senses can take us
Does not know what quality proves substratum
FOR EMPIRICISTS HUMAN KNOWLEDGE IS “LIMITED” Book
a. SUBSTRATUM
– metaphysical idea
Where primary and secondary qualities adhere
Exists in all things
Secondary qualities: Do not make object what it is, attach themselves to object. Qualities are merely accidental to the object. (Color of marker: A blue marker if changed to color red is still a marker) Primary Qualities: Makes object what it is. If quality is missing, the object will not be what it is.

2. GEORGE BERKELEY – ESSE EST PERCIPI = TO BE IS TO BE PERCEIVED Notebook
Perception – Senses – Mind
Proof: Flame Experiment
Put hand near flame = Warm
Put hand in flame = Pain
Its got to be in the mind
Bucket of Water
Sensations you feel does not originate from objects but from the mind Perceiving Mind

a. HYMOLORPHIC DOCTRINE – Dialogue
PHILOMUS (BERKELEY) and HYLAS (LOCKE)

All things perceived by the mind are IMMATERIAL
DOCTRINE OF IMMATERIALISM

Book
No sense of talking about real objects independent of the perceiving mind God is the guarantor of all things that are not perceived to exist

3. DAVID HUME – WHETHER WE LIKE IT OR NOT, WE CANNOT KNOW Book
The most consistent empiricist
Bertrand Russell – “no one could accept and no one could refute” Hume destroyed foundations of science
Idea of causality or induction is a habit of the mind
Hume contends all we can acquire are nothing but sense impressions which our ideas originate from For an idea to be meaningful, there must be a corresponding impression Idea of causality is based on 3 empirical factors:

1. Contiguity – Apartment B (in between A and C)
2. Priority in Time -
3. Constant Conjunction
3 factors are no guarantee of causal event
4. Necessary Connection – supposed cause implies necessity Hume has shown there are no empirical necessities in the physical world Destroys metaphysics
Notebook
Analyzed Principle of Causality
Religion and science cannot go w/o proof of causality
Ideas are copies of Impressions
Impressions – Forceful and Lively / Vivacity
Ideas – Vague
Ideas are Impression Dependent

ATHEISTIC EXISTENTIALISM – Page 334
JEAN PAUL SARTRE – ESSENCE PRECEEDES EXISTENCE

1. MAX STIRNER – The Egoist – Nothing is more to me than myself Book
Affiliated with Egoism
Egoist – Aspires Glorification of Personal Concerns
Appropriation – possess and assimilate one’s own life as his own property Appropriation – highest level of self-affirmation
Egoist employs things, ideas and beliefs as measures of refining one’s self Empowers Uniqueness
The spirit is a lie
God is a created illusion
Burning of candle: Enjoying one’s self is consuming one’s life Egoist can optimize affirmation by relishing each and every moment of his life to the fullest Against subjugation of egoist to general wills or ideals of established forms of authority – undermines uniqueness, creativity, power Criticized Nation State

Attacked predestination
Ownness/ Self-Ownership

a. Theory of Social Relations
Altruism is disguised form of social relation
Making others happy makes ourselves happy
Utility – function that mechanics all forms of social interactions Useableness –Existence of other is a means to a ways...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free