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Filipino Uprisings

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"Filipino uprisings"

Chapter VII (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL OF FILIPINO UPRISINGS)
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FILIPINO UPRISINGS
The early missionaries learned the language of their flock and even their customs and traditions. They lived among the people as the father and mentors of the community. At times they took the sides of the natives against tax exaction of the state. They worked through the chiefs and established themselves as an additional authority. Greater power together with the decline in missionary zeal gave rise to greater abuse. As landlords, they became economic exploiter whose abuse threatens economic survival of the natives.
REASONS FOR FILIPINO EARLY UPRISING There were FOUR REASONS for the Filipino to rise in arms against the Spaniards: Filipinos love freedom and did not want a foreign power to rule over them; the brutality and injustices of many Spanish officials in the country and the agrarian troubles between the Filipinos and Spanish friars; and being very religious, the people in certain regions wanted to go back to the worship of their ancestral gods.

THE MORO WARS The Spanish become more serious when the fierce Muslims of Mindanao and sulu began attacking the coastal towns in the visayas and Luzon. The term “MORO” was used by Spaniards to refer to the muslim Filipinos. It originated from the “MOOR” which the Spaniards had given to the muslim from morocco in north Africa, who conquered and occupied Spain for over 800 years. The muslim were brave and skilled in the manufacture and use of arms. Fort pillar was built to protect the Christian missionaries. In 1635 governor salamanca founded what is now zamboanga city and defended it successfully from tagal in the battle of punta de fleches. Since the Spanish forced the Christian Filipinos to fight the muslim , the letter through that their own countrymen were also against them, not only fought the Spaniards and their Filipino brothers.

REASONS WHY THE REVOLT FAILED Among the main reasons for the failure were the failures were the following: absence of nationalism among Filipinos. They sided with their oppressors to curtail the revolts; they lack national leaders; there were no national leaders who could galvanize the Filipinos into one nation of lead them to their libertarian goal; and Filipinos as a whole lacked discipline and did not have enough experience in modern warfare

SIGNIFICANTS OF THE EARLY REVOLTS It proved that the Filipinos were not satisfied to remain an oppressed and dependent people and if given a chance to do so, they would not hesitate to assert their dignity, liberty and happiness. The failure of their periodic uprisings taught them to unite and fight for the common welfare of the fatherland.
LIMAHONG’S INVASIONS Soon after the Spaniards had occupied Manila in, Limahong, a Chinese adventurer, invaded the city on November 29, 1574. With 62 junks filled with Chinese warriors and their families, limahong landed in ermita from where they attacked the city. Juan de Salcedo ensured in time to drive back the pirates to pangasinan. Limahong then withdrew to pangasinan and established a colony at the mounts of Agro River. He was the first foreign threat to Spanish sovereignty.

CHINESE UPRISINGS The Chinese suspected the government of suppressing their group. At midnight of October 3, 1603,
Chinese rebels led by Eng. Kang attacked Tondo, Binondo, and Quiapo and burned buildings and
Killed many Spaniards and Filipinos. The Chinese were confined to a narrow strip of marshland
Between the passing and the walls, and later to a place north of the river opposite manila. The first parian was burned down in 1583 and was rebuild on a bigger site in Arrocers. In 1662 the Chinese in parian suspected that the government was preparing to massacre them. They fled to St. Cruz and began killing Filipinos and Spaniards. During the British invasion of manila in 1762, some Chinese in Pampanga and manila planned to rise in arms on Christmas Eve by killing Spaniards and Filipinos worshiping in the church. Governor Simon de Anda marched to Pampanga and put some 6,000 Chinese to death. This event is called “RED CHRISTMAS” in Philippine history.
THE PORTUGUESE THREAT When the Portuguese head of legaspi’s settlement in Cebu, they warned him to evacuate because the Philippines belonged to the Portuguese zone. PEREIRA, a Portuguese naval commander attacked Cebu nut legaspi defended the island. This threat would have been realized of Spain did not conquer Portugal. In 1580, the king of Portugal died without a direct heir. Philip II annexed Portugal and claimed inheritance of the Portuguese throne.

THE DUCH ATTACK After Holland gained freedom from Spain, Spain closed Lisbon to all Dutch merchants. On June 28, 1597 Holland sent Oliver Van Noort to the Moluccas and reached Manila Bay on November 8. Antonio de Morga, a justice of the Royal Audience met the enemy at Mariveles. This battle resulted in Morga’s victory. The last attack was the invasion of Corregidor. Captain Juan d Chaves marched to Abucay, Bataan and defeated them through the help of Filipinos.
THE BRITISH INVASION Spanish alliance with France, against which England was waging the seven years’ war caused, King George the lll of England to send British expeditionary forces to manila on January 2, 1762. A fleet of 13 ships with about 6,800 England soldiers and marine, Indian laborers entered manila bay in the evening of Sept. 22, 1762. The next morning, the British commander General William Draper demanded the surrender of manila. But Monsignor Manuel Antonio Rojo, Archbishop of manila and acting governor-general of the Philippines, refused to heed his ultimatum. Thousands of militiamen from Bulacan, Pampanga and Laguna mobilized to repulse the British. To prevent further bloodshed, rojo surrendered the City on October 5, 176 Don Simon de Anda, a member of the royal Audiencia escaped in a boat paddled by loyal Filipinos. De Anda organized an army of 5,000 men, and build defenses to keep the British from expanding their conquests. He had also recued a galleon carrying three million silver pesos which he used to fund these operations. After a year, the seven Years War ended. Simon de Anda and his forces entered Manila to accept the government from the British.
SIGNIFICANCE OF BRITISH OCCUPATON The British occupation eroded Spain’s reputation of invincibility. Economically, while the commercialization of the Philippine was the hardworking of the Chinese who did business with native producers. Politically, the invasion made the Filipinos more conscious of the great advantages of freedom and independence. This led to the political awakening to our people.

CHAPTER Vlll (FILIPINO STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM AND NAINHOOD)

OPENIG OF SUEZ CANAL These were contained in books and periodicals brought in and out of the archipelago. In the minds of the Filipinos sprouted the aspirations for freedom, justice and liberty upon wondering at the deplorable situation on the Philippines.

LIBERAL REGIME OF DELA TORRE The fall of Queen Isabella ll in the revolution of Sept 1868 mad way for the rise of liberalism in Spain. Filipinos came to enjoy a liberal regime made by the new Governor Carlos Maria de Torre. He introduced liberal reforms to the country by; establishing freedom of the press and speech; he lifted the censorship of the press and the prohibition against public assembly and even encourage petitions for refuse; and, at a reception hosted by the governor at malacanang on July 12 1869 to commemorate the triumph of the revolution he shocked conservative Spanish in manila by joining the Filipino liberals in a toast to freedom and stopped the Filipinization of parishes.
GOMBURZA STARTED IT ALL: THEIR CRUSAD

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