Fermentation Studies of Glucose and Ethanol Tolerant Strains Isolated from Sugarcane Industry Waste; Molasses

Topics: Ethanol, Biofuel, Ethanol fuel Pages: 49 (9534 words) Published: July 31, 2009


The last few years have seen a dramatic increase in the price of fuel leading to various nations trying to find the alternatives to the fuel addiction. Biofuels are considered renewable and sustainable in contrast to the majority of liquid and gas fuels we use today. Biofuels are basically solid, liquid or gaseous fuels obtained from relatively recently lifeless or living biological materials. Biofuel in the form of ethanol have been seen as one of the most attractive source of biofuel to replace or supplement existing fuel demands.

The technology to produce alcohol from sugars is through the process of fermentation, whereby microorganisms such as yeasts and certain species of bacteria have the ability to convert sugar through their metabolism to form alcohol as their main fermentation products.

The chemical reaction is shown below:
C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
In the fermentation of sugar to alcohol, economic factors play the most crucial roles. The requirement is higher production at less cost. Therefore, agronomic residues such as corn stover (corn cobs and stalks), sugarcane waste, wheat, or rice straw, forestry a paper mill wastes, and dedicated energy crops are the major biomass resources considered for the production of fuel ethanol. Most bio-ethanol in India is produced from the molasses left over from the refining of sugar from sugarcane.

Molasses is a thick by-product from the processing of the sugar beet or sugar cane into sugar. Molasses (waste from sugarcane industry) is the commonly used raw material for production of alcohol in most distilleries because of low cost and easy availability. Utilization of molasses for the production of ethanol in India will not only provide value-addition to the byproduct, it can also ensure better price stability and price realization of molasses for the sugar mills. This will improve the viability of the sugar mills, which will in turn benefit cane growers.

Though ethanol is widely accepted as biofuel, there are several constraints in large scale production of ethanol. The ethanol production is not very cost effective. This is due to inefficient methods of production and conversion technologies available. Further the microbial strains used for industrial fermentation are less fermentation stress tolerant. The viability and fermentation efficiency of strains considerably reduces at high glucose and ethanol stress and hence the number of fermentation batches required to produce a fixed amount of alcohol is high which considerably adds to production cost.

In view of the above facts, the objectives of the present study were:

Isolation of high ethanol and glucose tolerant strains from molasses, since it is a rich source of nutrients and has high concentration of sugars.

Characterization of the identified strains.

Examination of the fermentation efficiency of the isolated strains.


Surging fuel prices have shifted the world’s attention towards biofuel development. Biofuels are defined as solid, liquid or gaseous fuels obtained from relatively recently lifeless or living biological materials and are different from fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead biological material.(www.asiaing.com). Agricultural products such as corn, soybeans, wheat sugar beet, sugar cane and sorghum among many others have been commonly used for biofuel production.

2.1. Types of biofuels
2.1.1. First generation biofuels
First-generation biofuels are biofuels made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology. The basic feedstocks for the production of first generation biofuels are often seeds or grains such as wheat, which yields starch that is fermented into bioethanol, or sunflower seeds, which are pressed to yield vegetable oil that, can be used in...

References: • Berg C, F.O.Licht (2004), World Fuel Ethanol ‘Analysis And Outlook’.
• Campbell CJ, Laherrère JH. (1998) The end of cheap oil. Sci. Am., 3:78-83.
• Cheng J, Stomp A, Yablonski M. (2009) Growing High-Starch Duckweed on Wastewater for Ethanol Production. Presented at the 14th Annual Institute of Biological Engineering Conference in Santa Carla, Calif.
• Chavanne G (1937) Belgian Patent 422877 University of Brussels (Belgium) was granted a patent for - Procedure for the transformation of vegetable oils for their uses as fuels.
• Clines, Tom (2006), Brew Better Ethanol. Popular Science Online.
• COPERT Study (2006): An assessment of the impact of ethanol-blended petrol Safer, Less Expensive Alternative, University of Michigan.
• Doran P, Aldrich JB, Ingram HC. (1994) Saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway. Biotechnol. Bioeng, 44: 240-247.
• Evans G, Liquid Transport Biofuels - Technology Status Report", National Non-Food Crops Centre, 2004-14. Retrieved on 2009-05-11.
• Garrison EG.(1993) Making Simple Fermented Beverages,
• Gerpen JV, Shanks B, and Pruszko R Biodiesel Production Technology (August 2002–January 2004).
• Gervásio PD , Elza F D, DaisonOS2, Walter V Guimarães2, (2005) Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 36:395-404 ISSN 1517-8382.
• Gough S, Flynn O, Hack CJ, and Marchant R,(1996) journal-Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Volume 46, Number 2.
• Gervásio P, Elza F, Silva D, Walter V.(2005) Ethanolic fermentation of sucrose, sugarcane juice and molasses by Escherichia coli strain ko11 and Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 36: 395-404.
• Heath,AH. (1997) A Manual On Lime And Cement, Their Treatment And Use In Construction, 2: 169-171.
• Inderwildi OR, King AD (2009). Quo Vadis Biofuels. Energy & Environmental Science 2: 343. biomass 2 liquid technology.
• Jones S and Peterson CL (1999) A Literature Review Using Unmodified Vegetable Oils as a Diesel Fuel Extender.
• Karaosmanolu F, Ergudenler AI, (2000) Sever - Energy Fuels, - pubs.acs.org , ‘Biochar from the straw-stalk of rapeseed plant.
• Knothe G (2002) Renewable Products Development Laboratory US Department of Agriculture’s National Centre for Agriculture Utilization Research.
• Li Y, Horsman M, Wu N, Lan CQ, Dubois-Calero N. (2008) Biofuels From Microalgae Biotech Prog, 24: 815-820 Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
•  Lin Y, Tanaka S. (2005) Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects. Journal for Applied Microbiology And Biotechnology, 69: 627-642.
• Lubert,S. (1975) Biochemistry (editor Patricia Zimmerman)
• Lynd L, Cushman LR, Nichols JH, Wyman RJ
• "Methanol Poisoning". (2007) Cambridge University School of Clinical Medicine. http://www-clinpharm.medschl.cam.ac.uk/pages/teaching/topics/poison/poison9.html.
• Mills GA, Ecklund, E.E. Mills GA, Ecklund EE (1987). Alcohols as Components of Transportation Fuels. Annual Review of Energy 12: 47–80.
• Mohan Raj T, (2000) SASTRA University Thanjavur Operational characterstics of engine run by biodiesel (rubber seed oil) with diesel fuel operation: A Comparison.
• Morais PB, Rosa CA, Linardi VR, Carazza F, Nonato EA (1996). Production of fuel alcohol by Saccharomyces strains from tropical habitats. Biotechnology Letters 18 (11): 1351–6doi.
• Redman G. (2008) The Andersons Centre. Assessment of on-farm AD in the UK, National Non Food Crops Centre. Retrieved on 2009-05-11.
• Rousseau C, Coutanceau C, Lamy A and Léger JM, (2005) Journal of Power Sources Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, “Equipe Electrocatalyse” UMR-CNRS 6503, Université de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France.
• RyoheiU, Naoko HS and URANO (2003) Naoto-Journal of Tokyo University of Fisheries, Vol. 3
• Stryer, Lubert (1975)
• Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K (2007), Acid-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review. BioResources, 472–99).
• Teclu D, Tivchev G, Lain M, Wallis M. (2009) The elemental composition of molasses and its suitability as carbon source for growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161 (suppl 2-3): 1157-1165.
• Wolynec S, Tanaka DK (1984), Corrosion in Ethanol Fuel Powered Cars.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Method Production of Ethanol from Banana Waste Essay
  • Ethanol Fuel Production from Waste Banana Peelings Essay
  • Ethanol Fuel Production from Banana Waste Peelings Essay
  • Biosynthesis Of Ethanol From Sucrose Fermentation Essay
  • Energy from Waste Sources Essay
  • case Study : From Saga to Proton Essay
  • Essay on Bioethanol Production from Food Waste
  • wastes Research Paper

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free