The levels of government were established when Canada created it's Constitution (The British North America Act) in 1867. The separate roles are defined by sections 91 and 92.
In general, the federal government takes major responsibility for things that affect all Canadians. This would include national defense, foreign policy and citizenship. The Federal Legislature (Parliament Buildings) and many of the Federal offices, boards, bureaucracy, etc are located in the Canadian capital of Ottawa. Federal Legislative Representatives are referred to as MP's (Members of Parliament). The head of the government is the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the head of the federal party that is in power (explained later). Like …show more content…
For example there is both a Federal and Provincial Ministry of the Environment. As Canada moves forth, and the government grows, new areas have emerged to be governed. When a conflict between these two levels of government arise, the power is automatically given to the federal government under the constitution.
When Canada came together in Confederation in 1867, many of it's makers, including the first Prime Minister Sir. John A. Macdonald envisioned a strong federal government and a weaker provincial one. However, throughout Canadian history Canada has increasingly had stronger provincial governments and the federal one has become weaker. Some attribute this to the national unity problems in Canada. (This is in contrast to the United States where the Constitution was designed for strong States and a weaker national government but throughout history the federal government has become stronger with weaker States.)
Federal and provincial