Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management
1) Division of Work:
This principle of Fayol tells us that as far as possible the whole work should be divided into different parts and each individual should be assigned only one part of the work according to his ability and taste rather than giving the whole work to one person.
When we divide work then the efficiency will increase, such as increase in the quality of work, increase in the speed of production, decrease in the wastage of resources.
According to this principle, authority and responsibility should go hand in hand. It means that when a particular individual is given a particular work and he is made responsible for the results, this can be possible only when he is given sufficient authority to discharge his responsibility.
Discipline is essential for any successful work performance. Fayol considers discipline to mean obedience, respect for authority, and observance of established rules.
Discipline can be established by providing good supervision at all levels, clearly explaining the rules, and implementing a system of reward and punishment.
4) Unity of Command:
According to the principle of unity of command, an individual employee should receive orders from only one superior at a time and that employee should be answerable only to that superior. If there are many superiors giving orders to the same employee, he will not be able to decide as to which order is to be given priority. He thus finds himself in a confused situation.
5) Unity of Direction:
Unity of direction means that there should be one head for one plan for a group of activities having the same objective. In other words, there should be one plan of action for a group of activities having the same objective and there should be one manager to control them.
Unity of command means that there should be only one manager at a time to give command to an employee, while the unity of direction means that there should be only one manager exercising control over all the activities having the same objective.
6) Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest:
According to this principle, the general interest or the interest of the organization is above everything. If one is asked to place individual interest and the general interest in order of priority, definitely the general interest will be placed at the first place.
Fayol is of the opinion that the employees should get a fair remuneration so that the employees and the owners find equal amount of satisfaction. It is the duty of the manager to ensure that employees are being paid remuneration according to their work. If, however, they are not paid properly for their work, they will not do their work with perfect dedication, honesty and capacity.
According to this principle, the superiors should adopt effective centralization instead of complete centralization and complete decentralization. He feels that the superiors should keep the authority of taking important decisions in their own hands, while the authority to take daily decisions and decisions of less importance should be delegated to others
9) Scalar Chain:
It refers to a formal line of authority which moves from highest to the lowest ranks in a straight line,
This chain must be followed in a strict manner. It means each communication must move from top to bottom and vice versa in a straight line. The important condition here is that no step (post) should be overlooked during communication.
According to the principle of order, a right person should be placed at the right job and a right thing should be placed at the right place. Maintaining these two orders properly will ensure that everybody knows his workplace, what he is to do and from where he would get his required material. Consequently, all the available resources in the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document